What is Dextran and its Clones?
Dextran refers to a homopolysaccharide composed of glucose as a monosaccharide. The difference in the length of the dextran chain determines its different medicinal value. Long-chain dextran is usually a blood volume expansion drug with a molecular weight of tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands; while short-chain dextran can be complexed with ferric hydroxide , made of iron dextran, that is, iron dextran.
Table of Dextran
What is Dextran?
Dextran is a high-molecular glucose polymer synthesized from sucrose catalyzed by dextran sucrase (dextransucrase EC188.8.131.52) produced by Leuconostocmesenteroides. The polymer contains 95% of α‑1,6 glycosidic bonds , while containing a small amount of branched structures of other glycosidic bonds. Because of its many advantages such as safety and non-toxicity, it has been widely used in many fields such as medicine, food and industry. Polymer dextran can be used as a drug carrier and a commonly used gel chromatography filler. Dextran commonly used clinically has three specifications: Dextran 70, Dextran 40 and Dextran 20, which are mainly used as plasma substitutes for hemorrhagic shock, traumatic shock and burn shock, etc. Dextran with a weight average molecular weight of 6‑8kDa is often made into iron dextran for the treatment of severe anemia. Dextran with a weight average molecular weight of 5kDa is often sulfated for the treatment of thrombus. Low molecular weight isomaltose has recently been found to be useful as a prebiotic. As a polysaccharide with rich sources, dextran is an excellent ingredient in the food industry, mainly used as a humectant, stabilizer, extender and thickener. In industry, dextran is used as an additive for oil well drilling mud.
Dextran 70 is included in the that common list of necessary medications, which is the most crucial medication needed by the health system.
In medication, it is utilized as an antithrombotic representative (antiplatelet) to reduce blood thickness and as a volume expander in hypovolemia.
Microsurgeons usually utilize these medicines to lower blood vessel apoplexy. The antithrombotic result of dextran is moderated by its binding with red blood cells, platelets and vascular endothelium, enhancing their electronegativity, consequently reducing erythrocyte gathering as well as platelet attachment. Dextran additionally decreases factor VIII-Ag Von Willebrand, thereby decreasing platelet feature. As a result of the adjustment of thrombus framework (more uniformly dispersed platelets and thicker fibrin) Through inhibition α- 2 Antifibrinolytic enzyme, dextran functions as plasminogen activator, so it has thrombolytic buildings.
In addition to these qualities, big glucans (which will not be discharged from the capillary) are effective penetrants as well as have been urgently utilized to deal with blood insufficiency [require to be priced estimate] The hemodilution triggered by the volume expansion of dextran improved the blood flow, further improving the patency of micro-anatomy as well as lowering apoplexy.
Nevertheless, the performance of antithrombotic therapy has actually not been discovered to be different from that of intra-arterial and also intravenous administration of dextran.
Glucan has a selection of molecular weights, varying from 3 kDa to 2 MDa. Larger dextran (> 60000 Da) is tough to secrete from the kidney, so it will stay in the blood for a number of weeks up until they are metabolized. As a result, they have actually lengthened anti thrombotic and also colloidal effects. In this family, dextran-40 (MW: 40000 Da) has constantly been one of the most prominent member of anticoagulant treatment. Almost 70% of dextran 40 is excreted with pee within the very first 24-hour after intravenous infusion, while the remaining 30% will stay for a number of days.
Dextran is made use of as a lubricating substance in some eye goes down. And dissolve other variables, such as iron (in a solution called iron dextran) in some intravenous fluids.
Intravenous service consisting of dextran can be utilized as both a volume expander and also a way of parenteral nourishment. This solution provides an osmotic neutral fluid that, once inside the body, is absorbed by cells right into glucose as well as complimentary water. It is occasionally utilized to supplement blood loss in emergency situation scenarios, however when supplementary blood is not offered, it needs to be made use of with caution because it does not give the required electrolytes and also might bring about hyponatremia or other electrolyte disorders.
Glucan likewise enhances blood glucose levels.
Dextran is utilized in osmotic pressure innovation to exert osmotic pressure on organic molecules.
It is likewise made use of for some size exemption chromatographic matrices; An instance is Sephadex.
Dextran is additionally utilized in complementary bioreactor applications in the form of beads.
Dextran has been made use of as a fixative in biosensors.
Dextran preferentially binds to very early endosomes; Fluorescent labeled dextran can be used to observe these endosomes under the microscopic lense.
Dextran can be used as a supporting covering to shield steel nanoparticles from oxidation as well as boost biocompatibility.
The combination of dextran with fluorescent particles such as fluorescein isothiocyanate can be used to produce a focus gradient of diffusible molecules for imaging as well as allow succeeding characterization of the gradient slope.
The fluorescent-labeled dextran service can be perfused through the engineered blood vessels to assess the vascular permeability.
Dextran is utilized to manufacture microcarriers for industrial cell culture.
Oral dextran salt sulfate was used to induce colitis in pet versions of inflammatory bowel condition.
System of β-Glucan Acting Upon the Skin
β-glucan is a high-purity cell remove, and as a skin activator, it can be recognized by receptors on the membrane layer of immune-competent cells and also turn on immune-competent cells. β-glucan boosts skin development element (EGF) on maturing skin and also wrinkled skin, which will certainly promote the increase of collagen as well as elastin in the skin, thus boosting skin appearance as well as eliminating creases.
Ultraviolet radiation has an inhibitory effect on Langerhans cells in the skin. If the skin is subjected to sunshine for a long time, the number of Langerhans cells will certainly be greatly reduced, the task will be lowered, as well as the skin’s defense immunity will certainly be compromised. In addition to its very own sun security as well as reducing discomfort as well as inflammation, β-glucan can additionally promote the proliferation of Langerhans cells as well as enhance skin resistance. We discovered that β-glucan can promote fibroblast proliferation as well as collagen synthesis, complimentary extreme scavenging capability, withstand ultraviolet damage, advertise immune security, skin hydrating and various other features in skin anti-aging.
Four Common Dextrans: Dextran 10 | Dextran 20 | Dextran 40 and Dextran 70
Dextran 40 is a high-molecular glucose polymer, which can increase plasma colloid osmotic pressure, absorb extravascular water and expand blood volume. Because of its small molecular weight and rapid excretion, its expansion effect is not long-lasting, but this drug can cover the surface of red blood cells and increase blood volume. The negative charge on the surface makes it difficult for red blood cells to aggregate, and can depolymerize the aggregated red blood cells, thereby reducing blood viscosity and improving microcirculation. Dextran can also wrap around the surface of platelets and cover the damaged vascular intima, thereby inhibiting the adhesion and aggregation of platelets, thereby preventing thrombus formation. It still has an osmotic diuretic effect.
Dextran 40 is mainly used for various shocks, among which the curative effect on hemorrhagic shock is better than dextran 70, because it can improve microcirculation and tissue perfusion in addition to expanding blood volume, and can also be used for trauma, burns and toxic shock. Early prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by shock. Thrombotic diseases such as cerebral thrombosis, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, thromboangiitis obliterans, retinal artery and vein thrombosis, skin ischemic ulcer, etc. Limb replantation and vascular surgery can prevent postoperative thrombosis, improve blood circulation, and increase the success rate of replantation.