Tranexamic Acid CAS 1197-18-8
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- Appearance: White powder
- Purity: 99. 0%min
- Stock: In stock
- Sample: Available
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Tranexamic Acid: The Complete Guide
Tranexamic Acid for Sale
|Chemical Name:||Tranexamic Acid|
|Type:||Cosmetic raw materials; Pharmaceutical, pesticide, dye intermediates; Pharmaceutical raw materials; organic raw materials|
What is Tranexamic Acid?
Tranexamic acid, also known as tranexamic acid, is a synthetic lysine derivative that dermatologists at SkinCeuticals, an American scientific skincare brand, once commented on as “a powerful ingredient that brightens the complexion.” , blackening and whitening”. A large number of studies have shown that tranexamic acid has good effectiveness in reducing pigmentation, and many well-known skin care brands have added tranexamic acid to their whitening and spot-lightening product formulas.
Under normal circumstances, when the body is bleeding, the exogenous or endogenous blood coagulation system can be activated successively, and at the same time, the blood vessels spasm, and the platelets are activated, adhered, and aggregated in the basement membrane of the damaged blood vessel, causing blood coagulation locally, and finally forming fibrin The clot produces hemostasis. When the blood coagulation system is activated, the anticoagulation system and fibrinolytic system are also activated, which is beneficial to prevent the spread of the blood coagulation process and the recanalization of local blood flow, so as to ensure normal blood circulation. Usually coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolytic systems are in a dynamic balance.
Tranexamic acid has a high affinity with the lysine binding sites of plasminogen and plasmin, and can competitively inhibit the binding of lysine and plasmin in fibrin, thereby inhibiting the cracking of fibrin and inhibiting fibrinolysis process, reducing the possibility of massive bleeding and recurrent bleeding. Its low dose can inhibit the activation of plasminogen, and its high dose can also directly inhibit the proteolytic enzyme activity of plasmin, so the hemostatic effect is more significant.
Tranexamic Acid Uses
Studies have shown that tranexamic acid can safely and reliably reduce mortality in patients with traumatic bleeding. In view of this, tranexamic acid, a cheap, generic drug, has been included in the WHO list of essential drugs and will be widely used in high-, middle-, and low-income countries around the world.
Studies have shown that craniocerebral patients receiving tranexamic acid are less likely to experience progressive bleeding and tend to have a lower mortality rate.
Although neither of these two studies reached very clear conclusions, it still suggested that tranexamic acid may improve the prognosis of traumatic brain injury, which will lay the foundation for follow-up studies, such as the upcoming implementation and recruitment of up to 10,000 cranial brain patients. The CRASH-3 study in brain-injured patients will provide solid evidence for the efficacy of tranexamic acid in improving mortality and disability.
Tranexamic acid significantly reduces blood loss in women with menstrual bleeding. A Cochrane systematic review evaluating antifibrinolytics (mainly tranexamic acid) for menorrhagia found that antifibrinolytics reduced blood volume in women with menorrhagia to a greater extent than placebo or other treatments losses without increasing the incidence of side effects. On November 13, 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved tranexamic acid oral tablets as a treatment for women with severe menorrhagia.
Studies have shown that tranexamic acid significantly reduces the amount of postpartum hemorrhage. However, due to the low methodological quality of the three included randomized trials, there is no evidence from high-quality studies to support the use of antifibrinolytics in postpartum hemorrhage. Currently, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial called WOMAN (The World Maternal Antifibrinolytic Trial) is being carried out, which will recruit 15,000 patients worldwide, and will provide early application of tranexamic acid on mortality in patients with postpartum hemorrhage, hysterectomy provide reliable evidence of improvements in rates, etc.
A Cochrane systematic review of 65 randomized controlled trials found that tranexamic acid reduced the risk of postoperative blood transfusion by nearly one-third (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.70) and reduced intraoperative and postoperative The amount of bleeding, while the incidence of thromboembolic events did not increase.
Tranexamic acid is also used as a second-line regimen for adjuvant therapy before and after surgery in hemophilia patients with factor VIII deficiency. And it can also be used for hereditary angioedema.
Its anti-black and spot-removing effect is about 50 times higher than that of vitamin C, and nearly 10 times that of fruit acid.
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Application of Tranexamic Acid
Globally, the annual volume of joint replacement surgery exceeds one million, and the blood loss during and after joint replacement surgery is generally high. According to literature reports, the postoperative blood transfusion rate ranges from 11% to 67%, which not only increases the cost of surgery and the risk of disease transmission, but also increases the risk of disease transmission. It also increases the probability of infection around the joint prosthesis to a certain extent.
Clinically, traditional ways to reduce perioperative blood loss include: preoperative blood storage, hemodilution, intraoperative controlled hypotension, and postoperative application of erythropoietin. Recently, the way of drugs to reduce the blood loss rate has gradually been paid attention to, such as intravenous and local application of tranexamic acid drugs.
Tranexamic acids are a class of synthetic drugs that inhibit fibrinolysis and thrombus degradation. Surgical trauma, etc. will cause the body’s stress response, hyperfibrinolysis in the blood, tranexamic acid reversibly binds to the lysine site on the plasminogen in the blood, and prevents the activation of protease and fibrinogen , thereby inhibiting the degradation of fibrin.
At present, there are many clinical literatures supporting the application of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty to reduce blood loss and blood transfusion rate. According to different application methods, tranexamic acid can be divided into intravenous infusion, topical application, and oral administration.
A recent systematic review found that perioperative intravenous tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty reduced blood loss by approximately 500 ml and blood transfusion by 1.43 units. Most of the studies (14/15) included in this systematic review used low doses of intravenous tranexamic acid (10-50 mg/kg), and only one study used high doses (150 mg/kg).
Topical use of tranexamic acid in joint arthroplasty is also supported by extensive literature. However, the specific dose and application method are different. Georgiadis reported that 2.0 g tranexamic acid + 75 ml normal saline was soaked in the joint cavity for 5 minutes; Chimento advocated 3 g + 100 ml normal saline soaked in the joint cavity; Mutsuzaki et al. It is recommended to dissolve 1 g of tranexamic acid in normal saline, retrogradely inject into the joint cavity through the drainage tube, and clamp the drainage tube for 1 hour. A meta-analysis concluded that topical intra-articular application of tranexamic acid above 2 g was effective in reducing postoperative blood transfusion rates.
Two studies compared topical tranexamic acid with intravenous tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss. Huang et al (1.5 g iv + 1.5 g topical application: 3.0 g iv) found similar effects; Sarzaeem et al compared three different application methods (1.5 g intravenous infusion; 3 g intra-articular immersion; 1.5 g through drainage Intra-articular injection into the joint cavity) comparison found that intravenous infusion of tranexamic acid had a better effect on reducing blood loss, and intra-articular injection had the best effect on reducing postoperative drainage.
It has also been reported in the literature that oral tranexamic acid has the effect of reducing bleeding in joint replacement surgery. Irwin compared the effect of intravenous infusion of 15 mg/kg and oral 25 mg/kg of tranexamic acid in controlling bleeding and found that oral tranexamic acid did not increase the incidence of side effects, while reducing the amount of bleeding. A randomized controlled trial completed by Alipour et al. also confirmed that oral administration of tranexamic acid 1 g 2 hours before surgery, every 6 hours after surgery, and continuously for 18 hours can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding.
Most studies on the clinical use of tranexamic acid will have a high thrombotic risk (history of stroke, previous cardiac stent implantation, previous deep vein thrombosis event, previous history of myocardial infarction, previous coronary artery bypass grafting or Thrombosis-prone diseases (such as protein C deficiency, etc.) were excluded, so it is difficult to evaluate the safety of tranexamic acid in such patients.
A study of tranexamic acid in 1102 ASA class III-IV total joint arthroplasty patients found that 240 patients at high risk of thrombosis who received tranexamic acid had a lower risk of symptomatic venous thrombosis at 30 days postoperatively. Sex did not increase. However, there are too few relevant studies, and it is difficult to draw a relatively definite conclusion on this. Therefore, some scholars suggest that topical application of tranexamic acid may be more appropriate for such patients with high risk of thrombosis.
The principle and clinical application of tranexamic acid in treating chloasma
Melasma is a refractory skin disease that often occurs on the face. Its etiology is complicated and it is characterized by irregular pigmentation spots. At present, the main therapeutic drugs are hydroquinone (hydroquinone), retinoic acid, tranexamic acid and so on.
As a depigmenting agent, hydroquinone has always been the first-line drug for the treatment of chloasma, and it is often combined with fluocinolone and tretinoin to treat chloasma. However, such treatment is often accompanied by relatively large side effects. For example, the adverse reactions of hydroquinone include irritant contact dermatitis, permanent skin leukoplakia, exogenous tan and nail bleaching, and brown nail lesions; fluocinolone, as a glucocorticoid for external use, can cause facial atrophy, hair loss, etc. Vasodilation, hirsutism, etc.; vitamin A acid can inhibit the activity of sebaceous glands, reduce skin oil secretion, and cause skin sensitivity and dryness. Therefore, these modes have just had certain limitation in the process of treating chloasma.
Tranexamic acid, also known as tranexamic acid, is a commonly used hemostatic drug in clinical practice. It exerts hemostatic effect by inhibiting the dissolution of fibrin.
Until 1979, a Japanese female doctor Sadako Nijo, in the process of using tranexamic acid to relieve chronic urticaria, accidentally discovered that the chloasma on the patient’s face had actually faded. big concern. Later research found that tranexamic acid has an anti-fibrinolytic effect, and can treat chloasma by inhibiting plasminogen binding to keratinocytes, reducing tyrosinase activity, and inhibiting melanin synthesis.
So far, the mechanism of tranexamic acid lightening melasma has not been fully elucidated. Early studies believed that the chemical structure of tranexamic acid is partially similar to that of tyrosine, and that tranexamic acid may treat melasma by competing with tyrosine, thereby interfering with the catalytic effect of tyrosinase on tyrosine, thereby Interferes with the normal formation of melanin.
Tranexamic Acid Supplier and Manufacturer
As a tranexamic acid supplier and manufacturer with a strict standard product quality system certificate, Zhishang Chemical has long been providing the best tranexamic acid raw materials to customers all over the world.
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