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Protocatechuic Acid CAS 99-50-3 PCA

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  • Appearance: White powder
  • Purity: 99. 0%min
  • Stock: In stock
  • Sample: Available
  • Zhishang Chemical: Protocatechuic Acid Supplier & Manufacturer

Basic Info

What is Protocatechuic Acid?

Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. is a simple phenolic acid that is a precursor for the synthesis of other complex molecules such as anthocyanin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and vanillin. It is found in edible vegetables, fruits, nuts, brown rice, pecans, tea, hibiscus flowers, and some herbal medicines.

Protocatechuic acid has a variety of biological activities against different molecular targets. It has antibacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and neuroprotective effects. In addition, protocatechuic acid has potential chemical protection. It can inhibit chemical carcinogens in vitro and produce pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in different aspects. Therefore, it is currently used clinically for the treatment of burns, infantile pneumonia, bacillary dysentery, acute pyelonephritis, acute pancreatitis and certain ulcer diseases.

Protocatechuic Acid Uses

  • Protocatechuic acid can be used as a dye, a pharmaceutical intermediate, and an analytical reagent (determination of iron).
  • Chemoprevention in several animal models of carcinogenesis. Blocks cell proliferation during the post-priming phase.
  • Protocatechuic acid can be used to study the effect of 4-coumaric acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid on basal oxidative DNA damage in rat colonic mucosa in vivo. It can be used for derivatization of chitosan resin.
  • 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid is a metabolite of polyphenols such as phloretin and quercetin. It is also a phenolic antioxidant found in fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Furthermore, it was found to be an effective chemopreventive agent in several models of carcinogenesis. Besides that, it also has anti-inflammatory properties.

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Application of Protocatechuic Acid

Protocatechuic acid is a metabolite of complex polyphenols, such as anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, which are abundant in plants and fruits and can be absorbed by animals and humans. It is estimated that people consume more anthocyanins than other Polyphenols should be high, so the nutritional value of protocatechuic acid is more and more recognized. A large number of experiments have proved that protocatechuic acid has a variety of biological activities against different molecular targets, and it has antibacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and neuroprotective effects. It can inhibit chemical carcinogens in vitro and produce pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in different aspects.

Protocatechuic acid has a wide range of antibacterial effects. In vitro experiments, protocatechuic acid isolated from the plant roselle has a strong antibacterial effect on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. And Acinetobacter baumannii has inhibitory effect, and the antibacterial ability of protocatechuic acid is better than that of roselle, and the heat-treated protocatechuic acid does not affect its antibacterial activity. Protocatechuic acid can be added to muscle foods to prevent Campylobacter contamination and to delay lipid oxidation. When the minimum inhibitory concentration of protocatechuic acid is 24-44microg/mL, it can effectively inhibit food spoilage bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium DT104, Escherichia coli O157: H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus bacilli, and showed a dose-dependent manner, which indicated that protocatechuic acid may be used as a food additive to prevent bacterial contamination.

Protocatechuic acid has a certain role in cancer prevention, and its mechanism of action may be related to its antioxidant activity, including inhibiting growth, scavenging oxygen free radicals, and up-regulating enzymes involved in neutralization, etc., or it affects the first phase and phase of some carcinogens. The second phase of metabolism may also directly block the binding site of the final carcinogen through the DNA molecule, thereby preventing the formation of compounds that cause mutation and tumor transformation, and play a certain role in preventing cancer. Protocatechuic acid extracted from honeysuckle can effectively kill HepG2 liver cancer cells by inducing JNK-dependent apoptosis of liver cancer cells at 100 micromol/L. Protocatechuic acid can inhibit the metabolism of cancer cells and down-regulate the Ras/Akt/NF-κB pathway by activating RhoB, which in turn leads to a decrease in the activity of MMP-induced cancer cells and reduces the invasiveness of cancer cells. It has certain value in the development of anti-cancer. Protocatechuic acid has a pro-apoptotic effect on human breast, lung, liver, cervix, and prostate cancer cells, and reduces the viability of these cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. It is a potential anticancer agent by inhibiting the apoptosis of tumor cells or delaying the infiltration and metabolism of tumor cells to exert its anticancer effect.

Alpinia protocatechuic acid reduces hydrogen peroxide-induced cell survival in vitro, prevents oxidative damage, and relieves oxidative stress in vivo. Its protective effect may be through anti-peroxidase activity and inhibition of Generated by free radicals. Hibiscus protocatechuic acid is protective against t-BHP-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. Protocatechuic acid has a protective effect on dioxin-induced oxidative damage and histopathological damage of rat heart tissue, by increasing the thiobarbituric acid active substance in rat heart tissue induced by dioxin, Reduce the content of glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, thereby alleviating necrosis and hemorrhage of cardiac tissue.

Protocatechuic acid has an anti-inflammatory effect, and it has a protective effect on LPS-induced RAW-264.7 cells and the air bag model of mice induced by carrageenan, and can reduce pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, and promote inflammation Mediators NO, PGE2, INOS, COX-2, NF-κB and MAPK. In addition, protocatechuic acid is an important active ingredient in Sijiqing tablets, which are used as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs.

In diabetic mice, protocatechuic acid significantly decreased blood glucose levels and increased insulin levels. The reason may be that protocatechuic acid alleviates the complications of diabetes, lowers triglycerides, and exerts its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Protocatechuic acid is beneficial to prevent or alleviate the related glycation of diabetic complications.

In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mice, protocatechuic acid reduced the levels of dopamine and dopamine metabolites in the striatum, Inhibiting this neurotoxicity, improving the pathology of the substantia nigra, reducing the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra, thereby playing a certain role in neuroprotection, it may be used as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease clinically. Protocatechuic acid has potential anti-infectious bursal virus. Protocatechuic acid can effectively reduce atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Protocatechuic acid prevents dioxin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats.

Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on Cardiovascular System

After intravenous injection of protocatechuic acid 50mg/kg in cats, coronary sinus flow did not change significantly, but 15 minutes after administration, oxygen consumption decreased by about 47%, blood pressure rose slightly at first, then decreased briefly, and then returned to normal, heart rate remained unchanged. Change. 15 minutes after intravenous injection of protocatechuic acid and then intravenous injection of epinephrine, the degree of coronary sinus flow increase after 1 minute was not significantly different from that of the group using epinephrine alone, but the oxygen consumption only increased by 80%, compared with the group using epinephrine alone (consumption Oxygen increased by 100%), the difference between the two is very significant, indicating that protocatechuic acid can partly resist the increase in myocardial oxygen consumption caused by adrenaline. In another experiment, it was also found that intravenous injection of protocatechuic acid 50 mg/kg followed by intravenous injection of protocatechuic aldehyde 10 mg/kg proved that protocatechuic acid can partly counteract the increase in oxygen consumption caused by antigen catechin aldehyde. Protocatechuic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde mixed with 10mg/kg each can increase the flow of coronary sinus weaker than protocatechuic acid alone with the same dose, and the time is shortened. However, it is superior to protocatechualdehyde alone in reducing arterial and venous oxygen differences and reducing myocardial oxygen consumption. After intravenous injection of the mixed solution, the blood pressure first drops briefly, and then rises weakly and persistently, which increases the blood flow of the pancreas, portal vein and lung, and accelerates the heart rate; reduces the blood flow of the hepatic artery and renal artery.

The cardiopulmonary perfusion hypoxia test method was used to directly measure the hypoxia tolerance of the rat myocardium, and it was observed that after intravenous injection of 10 mg protocatechuic acid, the hypoxia tolerance time of the myocardium was significantly prolonged, but the prolongation of the myocardial hypoxia tolerance was longer than that of B Aminocoumarin is slightly inferior. After 3 minutes of administration, the cardiac output increased by 10%. It can be seen that protocatechuic acid can significantly prolong the time of myocardial hypoxia tolerance while slightly improving cardiac function, and at the same time reduce the blood pressure drop caused by hypoxia. Slow down the heart rate, which is beneficial to prolong the myocardial hypoxia resistance time. Atmospheric hypoxia tolerance experiments proved that protocatechuic acid can prolong the survival time of mice (maintaining more than 1.5 hours), which is similar to the effect of dipyridamole at the same dose.

After intravenous injection of protocatechuic acid, the coronary resistance can gradually decrease, which lasts for about 30 minutes, and returns to the original level after about 1 hour. During this period, the systemic blood pressure has a slight increase. Protocatechuic acid has a dilating effect on the hindlimb blood vessels of cats but has no obvious change in dogs. The mixture of protocatechuic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde showed a slow and mild boosting effect, which could dilate blood vessels in the lower limbs of animals, but the splenic blood vessels responded slightly, which can explain the relationship between the boosting effect and changes in peripheral and some visceral blood vessels. Small, so it has nothing to do with α-receptor stimulation.

Reference

  1. Wei Miaomiao. The protective effect of protocatechuic acid on allergic asthma model mice and related mechanisms[D]. Jilin University, 2013.
  2. Alemika, T. E.; Onawunmi, G. O.; Olugbade, T. O. (2006). “Antibacterial phenolics from Boswellia dalzieliiNigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicines.

Protocatechuic Acid Supplier and Manufacturer

As a protocatechuic acid supplier and manufacturer with a strict standard product quality system certificate, Zhishang Chemical has long been providing the best protocatechuic acid raw materials to customers all over the world.

Over the years, relying on professional team experience and customer-centric team concept to meet customer needs in a timely manner, our company enjoys a high reputation in the world. At present, our company has served more than 6,000 customers and has established long-term cooperative relations with customers from many countries.

If you have a demand for protocatechuic acid and related products, please contact our service staff Zhishang Chemical – White directly, and we will provide you with high-quality products at the best price.

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