Citric acid CAS 77-92-9

Citric acid
Citric acid
Citric acid

Citric acid CAS 77-92-9

Product Name:Citric acid
Synonyms:Citric acid cas 77-90-9
CAS:77-92-9
MF:C6H8O7
MW:192.12
EINECS:201-069-1
Product Categories:Food additive
Melting point 153-159 °C (lit.)
Boiling point 248.08°C (rough estimate)
density 1.67 g/cm3 at 20 °C
vapor density 7.26 (vs air)
vapor pressure <0.1 hPa (20 °C)
refractive index 1.493~1.509
Fp 100 °C
storage temp. 2-8°C
solubility Citric acid also dissolves in absolute (anhydrous) ethanol (76 parts of citric acid per 100 parts of ethanol) at 15 °C.
form grit
pka3.14(at 20℃)
color White
PH3.24(1 mM solution);2.62(10 mM solution);2.08(100 mM solution);
OdorOdorless
explosive limit8%, 65°F
Water Solubility soluble in Water (1174g/L at 10°C, 1809g/L at 30°C, 3825g/L at 80°C).
Physicochemical propertiesCitric acid is the intermediate product of the plants of a natural composition and physiological metabolism, is also one of the organic acids widely used in the field of food, medicine, chemical industry. It is colorless transparent or translucent crystal, or granular, particle powder, odorless, although has strong sour, but a pleasant, slightly astringent taste. In the warm air gradually disintegrate, in the humid air, it is slight deliquescence.
citric acid
Citric acid has properties of polybasic acid, can produce ester, salt and amide, but cannot generate anhydride; carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and metal ions can form complexes or chelates; citric acid is strong acid, for carbon steel has strong corrosive effect, but is stainless steel without corrosive effects; in case of strong oxidant such as potassium permanganate, it can be oxidized to generate oxalic acid; and molten potassium hydroxide, this product is decomposed into oxalic acid and acetic acid; heated can be decomposed. Rat percutaneous LD50 is 975mg/kg.
(1) Reaction with acid
Citric acid and fuming sulfuric acid mixed, at room temperature, which produce aconitic acid, slightly heating can generate 3-ketoglutarate. The mixture of citric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid, temperature at 40℃ into acetone and CO2, CO, etc.; when heated to 150℃ to generate aconitic acid anhydride; generate double Kang acid (diconic acid) C9H10O6 and CO heating to 200 ℃, CO2 and so on.
When the sulfate concentration is less than 94%, generating 3-ketoglutaric acid at low temperature; when the sulfate concentration is less than 60%, when heated to generate aconitic acid.
Anhydrous citric acid and 1 portions of nitric acid and 2 copies of the action of sulphuric acid form nitric acid ester C3H5 (ONO2) (COOH)3, it does not dissolve in ether, and barium and lead combine to form insoluble salts.
(2) Reaction with alkali
The citric acid is fused with K2CO3 or KOH or nitric acid to obtain oxalic acid and acetic acid or other salts.
Citric acid and sodium salt (such as NaCl) lime carbonization to yield acetone.
Citric acid is get boiling in alkaline solution to obtain acrylic acid (C3H4O2).
The conventional acid base neutralization reaction of citric acid can produce various kinds of salts.
(3) The effect of glycerol
Citric acid and glycerol mixed by dry distillation to obtain acetone, CO, CO2 and glycerol in the ether acetone acid ester.
The mixture of citric acid and glycerol are heated to 100 ℃, and generate citric acid ester of glycerol , which is substance like glass. If large amount of glycerol and heated to 170℃ to get citronella diglycerol( citrodiglycerin C12H18O11).
Citric acid and glycerin which is according to the molar ratio of 1:3 heat can be citric acid glyceride. With different molar ratio of which can obtain different properties of resinous substance, and some were gel or solid form, some do not dissolve in water, some solution in water. If tung oil or oil and stearic acid are heated to 100℃, can shrink synthetic resinous substance, it is used as paint and plastics additives or special solvent.
Chemical PropertiesCitric acid is a colorless crystalline solid. It is soluble in water and alcohol. It is found in many plants, especially citrus fruits. The juice of unripe lemonsis a commercial source of citric acid.The reaction of calcium citrate and dilute sulfuric acid yields citric acid and calcium sulfate,which maybe separated by filtration. The food industry uses citric acid as a flavoring agent and as an antioxidant. Citric acid, formulated with propylene glycol and butylated hydroxy anisol,is used as a stabilizer for fats, greases,and tallow. Etching,textile dyeing, and printing operations use citric acid in various applications, and it is also used to adjust the pH in certain electroplating baths.
UsesCitric acid and its citrate compounds are widely used in hundreds of applications. Globalproduction of citric acid in 2005 was 1.6 million tons, with China producing approximately40% of the world supply. In the United States, approximately 65% of citric acid use is in thefood and beverage industry. Citric acid is used as an acidulant to impart tartness, to controlpH, as a preservative and antioxidant, as a metal chelator, and to stabilize color and taste.Citrate salts can be used as mineral and metal dietary supplement; for example, calcium citrate is used as a calcium supplement.the second greatest use of citric acid is in detergents andcleaning products. Sodium citrate is used as a builder. Citric acid’s ability to chelate metalsmakes it useful as a water-softening agent, which can also assist in cleaning. Approximately10% of citric acid production is used in the pharmaceutical industry. Citric acid’s largest usein pharmaceuticals is as an eff ervescent when combined with carbonates or bicarbonates suchas in Alka-Seltzer. As an eff ervescent, it improves tastes, buff ers, and improves solubility ofingredients. It is also used in pharmaceuticals to impart tartness to mask unpleasant medicinalfl avors, maintain stability, and as a buff ering agent.
DescriptionCitric acid is a white, crystalline, weak organic acid present in most plants and many animals as an intermediate in cellular respiration. Citric acid contains three carboxyl groups making it a carboxylic, more specifically a tricarboxylic, acid.the name citrus originates from the Greek kedromelon meaning apple of melon for the fruit citron. Greek works mention kitron, kitrion, or kitreos for citron fruit, which is an oblong fruit several inches long from the scrublike tree Citrus medica. Lemons and limes have high citric acid content, which may account for up to 8% of the fruit’s dry weight.
Citric acid is a weak acid and loses hydrogen ions from its three carboxyl groups (COOH) in solution.the loss of a hydrogen ion from each group in the molecule results in the citrate ion,C3H5O(COO)3 3?. A citric acid molecule also forms intermediate ions when one or two hydrogen atoms in the carboxyl groups ionize.the citrate ion combines with metals to form salts, the most common of which is calcium citrate. Citric acid forms esters to produce various citrates, for example trimethyl citrate and triethyl citrate.
Chemical PropertiesCitric acid is a weak organic acid with the formula C6H8O7. It is a natural preservative / conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, the conjugate base of citric acid, citrate, is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.
Citric acid is a commodity chemical, and more than a million tonnes are produced every year by fermentation. It is used mainly as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and as a chelating agent.
Chemical PropertiesCITRIC ACID, white crystalline solid, decomposes at higher temperatures, sp gr 1.542. Citric acid is soluble in H2O or alcohol and slightly soluble in ether. The compound is a tribasic acid, forming mono-, di-, and tri- series of salts and esters.
UsesCitric Acid is an acidulant and antioxidant produced by mold fer- mentation of sugar solutions and by extraction from lemon juice, lime juice, and pineapple canning residue. it is the predominant acid in oranges, lemons, and limes. it exists in anhydrous and mono- hydrate forms. the anhydrous form is crystallized in hot solutions and the monohydrate form is crystallized from cold (below 36.5°c) solutions. anhydrous citric acid has a solubility of 146 g and mono- hydrate citric acid has a solubility of 175 g/100 ml of distilled water at 20°c. a 1% solution has a ph of 2.3 at 25°c. it is a hygroscopic, strong acid of tart flavor. it is used as an acidulant in fruit drinks and carbonated beverages at 0.25–0.40%, in cheese at 3–4%, and in jellies. it is used as an antioxidant in instant potatoes, wheat chips, and potato sticks, where it prevents spoilage by trapping the metal ions. it is used in combination with antioxidants in the processing of fresh frozen fruits to prevent discoloration.
UsesAn organic acid obtained from lemon or lime. The colorless crystals of this acid are soluble in water and alcohol but less so in ether. It was used as a chemical restrainer particularly in developers for the collodion process and in silver nitrate solutions used for sensitizing salted and albumen papers.
UsesCitric acid is a weak organic acid that is known as a commodity chemical, as more than a million tonnes are produced every year by mycological fermentation on an industrial scale using crude sugar sol utions, such as molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is widely distributed in plants and in animal tissues and fluids and exist in greater than grace amounts in variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably in citrus fruits such as lemon and limes. Citric acid is mainly used as an acidifier, flavoring agent and chelating agent.
Usescitric acid has astringent and anti-oxidant properties. It can also be used as a product stabilizer, pH adjuster, and preservative with a low sensitizing potential. It is not usually irritating to normal skin, but it can cause burning and redness when applied to chapped, cracked, or otherwise inflamed skin. It is derived from citrus fruits.

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