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Quaternary Ammonium Salts

Quaternary ammonium salt is also called quaternary ammonium salt. The English name is Quaternary Ammonium Salt. It is a compound in which all four hydrogen atoms in ammonium ion are replaced by hydrocarbon groups. The general formula is R4NX, in which the four hydrocarbon groups R can be the same or different. X is mostly halogen anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-), but also acid radicals (such as HSO4-, RCOO-, etc.). Quaternary ammonium salts are similar in nature to inorganic salts, easily soluble in water, and the aqueous solution can conduct electricity. Mainly produced by the reaction of ammonia or amine with halogenated alkanes.

Types of Quaternary Ammonium Salts

  • Monoquaternary ammonium
  • Double quaternary ammonium salt (Gemini quaternary ammonium salt)
  • Triquaternary ammonium salt
  • Polyquaternary ammonium salt
  • Hyperbranched quaternary ammonium salt
quaternary ammonium salts

Use of Quaternary Ammonium Salts

Including: agricultural disinfectant, disinfection in public places, circulating water disinfection and algaecide, aquaculture disinfection and disinfection, medical disinfection and disinfection, livestock and poultry house disinfectant, red tide killer, cyanobacteria killer and other sterilization and disinfection fields. In particular, Gemini quaternary ammonium salt has an outstanding bactericidal effect and low overall cost.

Quaternary ammonium compounds have also been shown to have antibacterial activity. Some quaternary ammonium salt compounds, especially those containing long alkyl chains, are used as antibacterial agents and disinfectants. For example, benzalkonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, methylbenzalkonium chloride, hexadecyl chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetrimonium bromide, cetrimonium bromide, doff ammonium chloride, tetraethyl ammonium bromide, Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and Domiphen ammonium bromide. It is believed that quaternary ammonium compounds can also fight fungi, amoebas and envelope viruses by destroying cell membranes or viral envelope. Quaternary ammonium compounds are lethal [controversial; essential sources] and non enveloped viruses to a variety of organisms except endospores and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Quaternary ammonium compounds are cationic cleaners and disinfectants, which can be used to remove organic matter. They are very effective when combined with phenolic compounds. Quaternary ammonium salt compounds can be passivated with anionic detergents, including ordinary soaps. In addition, they work best in soft water. (quoted) the effective concentration is 200 ppm. They are effective at temperatures up to 100 ° C (212 ° f).

Quaternary ammonium salts is a commonly used disinfectant in food service industry.

Mainly used in textile printing and dyeing industry, this kind of softener has excellent softness, antistatic, sterilization and anti-yellowing properties. The dosage is small, the effect is good, the preparation is convenient, the compatibility is good, and it has a very high cost performance.

In 1950s, distearoyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (dhtdmac) was introduced as fabric softener. Due to the slow biodegradation of cations, the compound has been discontinued. Modern fabric softeners are based on quaternary ammonium salts, in which fatty acids are connected to the center of quaternary ammonium salts through ester bonds; These are commonly referred to as betaine esters or ester quaternary ammonium salts and are easily degraded, for example, by hydrolysis. It is characterized in that the cation contains one or two long alkyl chains derived from fatty acids connected to polyoxyammonium salts. Other cationic compounds can be obtained from imidazole, guanidine, substituted amine salt or quaternary alkoxyammonium salt.

The antistatic property of quaternary ammonium salt makes it can be used as fabric softener, conditioner and shampoo. This idea was first put forward by Henkel in 1984. Examples include cephalosporin ammonium chloride and ammonium chloride benzoate.

It is widely used in water treatment industry as a quaternary ammonium salts used as an inorganic flocculant synergist.
Drilling fluid, VES fracturing fluid, drag reducer, thickener
Gemin viscoelastic surfactants are mainly used in the petrochemical industry, which is a new research and development trend.

In organic chemistry, quaternary ammonium salts are used as phase transfer catalysts (PTC). This catalyst can accelerate the reaction between reagents dissolved in immiscible solvents. Dichlorocarbanes with high reactivity were prepared by PTC reaction with chloroform and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution as raw materials.

The anion exchange resin contains quaternary ammonium salts ions in the form of beads, which are combined with the polymer.

Hyperbranched Jimmich quaternary ammonium salts breaks the traditional theory that anions cannot be compatible with cations. This kind of products can not only dissolve with anions, but also have a synergistic effect, and are widely used as anionic synergists.

Cycocel reduces plant height by inhibiting the production of gibberellin, the main plant hormone responsible for cell elongation. Therefore, they mainly act on stem, petiole and flower stem tissue. The effect of reducing blade expansion is small, resulting in thicker and dark green leaves.

Quaternary ammonium salts products have been developing in the direction of environmental protection, easy biodegradation, no APEO, formaldehyde and other harmful natural environment and human health. With the improvement of public awareness and the requirements of environmental protection quality, such products continue to meet the needs of social development. It is the inevitable direction of the development of the surfactant industry in the future.

What's the difference between bleach and quaternary ammonium salt?

Bleach is a general term for the solution of sodium hypochlorite and water. Pure sodium hypochlorite is a water-soluble light yellow liquid containing about 12% chlorine. It is a strong oxidant. It corrodes or destroys most metals and reacts with acids, peroxides and many other chemicals to produce toxic chlorine. Bleach dissolves paper, cloth and many other organic materials. Even if the concentration of household use is 5%, bleach is still a strong oxidant and highly alkaline disinfectant. Care must be taken when using bleach. Even diluted smoke can cause serious irritation to the respiratory system. Skin contact may cause slight irritation to burns. Prolonged eye contact can cause permanent damage. Bleach contains no detergent.

Quaternary ammonium salt is the general name of quaternary ammonium chloride. There are about 300 varieties with different antibacterial effects. Quaternary ammonium salts are usually cationic (positively charged) surfactants. Quaternary ammonium salt provides cleaning ability for its formula due to its surfactant composition. These products have low toxicity, low corrosivity, easy to use and simple.

Although the advantage of bleach is that it is cheap in final use, other variables are disadvantages. Bleach is highly corrosive and contains toxic smoke, which can dissipate quickly. It can bleach most fabrics, cause irritation to eyes and nose, and does not contain cleaning ingredients. It will blacken floor tiles and damage floor finishes and cement mortar. Bleach is dangerous if mixed with many chemicals and detergents.

On the other hand, compared with bleach, quaternary ammonium salt has the disadvantage of high price. In the presence of soil, the activity of quaternary ammonium salt will also decrease. However, quat’s advantages make it a winner. Quaternary ammonium salt has excellent broad-spectrum sterilization ability, film-forming residue, low toxicity, corrosion resistance, simple use, long shelf life, suitable for various pH ranges, high concentration, no odor, and safe use on most surfaces. There is a neutral formula that does not darken the floor surface. Quaternary ammonium salts do not change the taste and smell of food. It is the preferred disinfectant in most hospitals and health institutions.