Detergent Raw Materials
Detergent raw materials refer to the raw materials needed to manufacture washing powder and washing cake. There are acid pulp, soda ash, soda ash, sodium tripolyphosphate, saponite, sodium silicate, sodium sulfate, synthetic dyes, etc.
Detergent raw materials include raw materials for soap production, detergent powder raw material and soap raw material.
Detergent raw materials is a combination of surfactants and some detergent auxiliary ingredients according to a certain formula. Detergent raw materials mainly include: solvents (water or organic solvents), surfactants, auxiliary agents, bleaching agents, fluorescent brighteners and small materials (auxiliary agents). The so-called auxiliaries are actually the traditional names, and in reality they may be the main components of detergents. There may also be synergistic effects between some raw materials, and many detergent raw materials have versatility. The so-called small ingredients, such as flavors, pigments, and enzymes, are added for the purpose of enhancing washing or improving the appearance of the product.
Surfactant of Detergent Raw Material
In a narrow sense, surfactants are often called active ingredients, and some alkaline substances (such as sodium carbonate and sodium silicate); substances that reduce hardness, such as ion exchangers (such as water-soluble polyacrylates and water-insoluble 4A zeolite), integrating agent (sodium citrate, EDITA, sodium metaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, nitrilotriacetic acid, etc.), depositing agent (sodium carbonate), etc. are called additives. Broadly speaking, all substances that contribute to the washing action are collectively referred to as washing aids. In this way, in addition to surfactants, the active ingredients are also active agents, including anti-redeposition agents, foam stabilizers, thickeners, fluorescent brighteners, fabric conditioners, bactericides, and corrosion inhibitors. , Adsorbents and enzymes, etc.
Textile fibers have obvious hydrophilic properties and are easily wetted. The wetting effect of surfactants is closely related to the decontamination process of fabrics. With the participation of surfactants, the surface of fabric fibers is easily wetted by liquid and penetrates into the capillaries of the fibers to expand the fibers. At the same time, the surfactants can penetrate between the hydrophobic dirt particles to smash the particle dirt into Colloidal-sized particles, in this way, the original structure between the fabric fiber and the dirt is destroyed, and the dirt is easily separated from the fiber. The wetting effect of surfactants does not directly decontaminate in the washing process, but it plays a very important role in the decontamination of fabrics.
Insoluble solids such as dust and soot cannot be dissolved in water and sink. When detergents containing surfactants are added, the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain of the surfactant is easily adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles, while the hydrophilic group at the other end extends into the water to form a layer of hydrophilic adsorption around the solid particles. Membrane, at this time, the surface tension between the washing liquid and the solid particles is less than the surface tension inside the solid particles. At this time, the wetting effect of the surfactant molecules destroys the cohesion between the solid particles. At the same time, due to the extremely strong penetrating power of the surfactant molecules, the solid particles are broken into tiny particles, which are surrounded by the surfactant molecules and dispersed in water. Because surfactants are polar substances that can be ionized in water and carry different charges, this layer of molecular enclosure is usually charged, so the dispersed particles are not easy to re-aggregate to form precipitates and can only be suspended in water.
After adding a surfactant to the liquid in the oil-water layer, the oil will be divided into very fine droplets and dispersed in the water with only a little vibration, forming an emulsion, which is not prone to stratification. The emulsification of surfactants plays a very important role in washing the greasy dirt on the clothes. After the greasy dirt becomes an emulsified state, it is not easy to accumulate and settle on the clothes.
There are three ways of solubilization: one is that non-polar substances such as grease and mineral oil are dissolved between the hydrocarbon chains of surfactant molecules and sandwiched between hydrophobic groups. One is a substance with polar and non-polar groups, and the surfactant molecules are aligned together. There is also a hydrophilic substance, which is adsorbed on the surface of the polar base of the surfactant micelle.
When a certain amount of surfactant is added to the water, the foam formed by external force is relatively stable. The main reason for the formation of foam is the directional adsorption of surfactant molecules, which reduces the surface tension of the gas-liquid interface.
The role of surfactants in washing is to moisturize, solubilize, disperse and emulsify stains. Some varieties also have other functions, such as alkanolamides. Its basic role is to stabilize foam. In some detergents (especially industrial detergents) there may not be surfactants, but some inorganic salts are used as the main components of the detergent, such as alkaline substances, or chelating agents, complexing agents, bleaching agents As the main ingredient of detergent.
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Detergent Raw Materials Uses
- Exclude alkali metal ions from water, fabrics, and dirt.
- Detergent raw materials can play or strengthen the washing effect during the washing process.
- Detergent raw materials play anti-redeposition ability in multiple washing cycles: Prevent dirt from encrusting on the fabric: Prevent dirt from being in the washing machine Medium deposition.
- Commercial, including chemical stability, industrial ease of handling, non-water absorption, color and odor meet the requirements. It can be compounded with other detergent components, storage is stable, and the source of raw materials is ensured.
- Ensure human safety.
- Environmental properties, can be metabolized through biodegradation, adsorption and other mechanical effects, and has no negative impact on the biological treatment system and surface water. No uncontrollable accumulation, no promotion of the flow of heavy metals, no eutrophication, no harmful effect on drinking water quality.
Detergent Additives for Detergent Raw Materials
- Inorganic additives
- Phosphate Main functions: chelating of metal ions, improving degumming, emulsification and dispersion, and alkaline buffering.
- The main function of sodium silicate: buffering effect. Sodium silicate can keep the PH value of the solution unchanged and has a buffering effect; it has a certain protective effect on the fabric. In the synthetic washing powder, a certain amount of sodium silicate is added. It can maintain the strength of the fabric and reduce the damage rate of the fabric; the anti-corrosion effect, sodium silicate can effectively prevent the corrosion of metal parts; the effect on the suspension force, emulsification force and foam stability; can keep the finished washing powder loose , Prevent agglomeration.
- Sodium carbonate has good adsorption performance and promotes the formation of foam.
- The decontamination effect of sodium sulfate can increase the adsorption speed and amount of the detergent to the fiber, which can improve the decontamination effect of the detergent; it has the effect of forming and preventing agglomeration of the washing powder, which helps the formation of the washing powder and prevents agglomeration. Piece.
- Organic additives
- The anti-redeposition agent can prevent the dirt from the washed fabric from being deposited on the fabric again, so that the white fabric will remain white after washing for many times, and will not turn yellow or gray.
- Fluorescent brightener enhances the look and feel of the washed fabric, makes the white fabric whiter, and the color fabric is more vivid and pleasing to the eye.
- Enzyme preparation can decompose the corresponding dirt, lower the washing temperature and improve the washing quality.