Feed additives refer to small or trace substances added in the process of feed production, processing and use. The amount of feed additives is small but the effect is significant. Feed additives are inevitable raw materials used in the modern feed industry. They have obvious effects on strengthening the nutritional value of basic feeds, improving animal production performance, ensuring animal health, saving feed costs, and improving the quality of livestock products.
Phytogenic Feed Additives
Classification of Feed Additives
Longchang bile acid is the main active component of bile. In the hepato-enteric circulation, it combines with fatty acids to emulsify fat and form a fat-soluble complex with fatty acids, so that fatty acids can be absorbed through the membrane to complete digestion and absorption. All the body’s biochemical reactions, especially enzymatic reactions, are carried out in aqueous solutions, so fats can only enter the fatty acid enzymatic hydrolysis process if they are emulsified and form fatty acid-emulsifier complexes. Since the hepatoenteric circulation is not a completely closed cycle, the insufficient secretion of endogenous emulsifiers has become the biggest factor affecting the digestion and absorption of fat.
Feed grade bile acid is a high-performance fat emulsifier. It can improve the activity of endogenous emulsifiers, make up for the insufficient secretion of endogenous emulsifiers, and release the potential energy of feed. It can promote the digestion and absorption of fat, protect the liver and gallbladder, improve the health of livestock and poultry, and increase the utilization rate of feed.
Feed additives including 18 kinds of amino acids such as lysine, methionine, and glutamic acid, as well as Shengbao, Poultry and Livestock, Feed Yeast, Feather Meal, Earthworm Meal, Feeding Le, etc. The most used additives are lysine and methionine. Feeding pigs with 0.2% lysine in the grain can increase daily weight gain by about 10%.
Feed additives are divided into microbial feed additives and Chinese herbal medicine feed additives.
- A microbial feed additive is a microbial product that replaces or balances one or more bacterial strains in the animal ecosystem. In a narrow sense, a microbial feed additive is a microbial product that can stimulate the reproduction and growth of its own beneficial bacteria, while resisting the growth of harmful bacteria. Microbial feed additives contain a large number of beneficial bacteria (active lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, bacillus), complex enzymes, chelating peptides, mold release agents, etc., after being fed into livestock and poultry as feed, they can multiply rapidly. On the one hand, they are introduced into bacteria The metabolites and intestinal endotoxins inhibit the growth of other harmful flora. On the other hand, microbial feed additives form a normal microbial flora in the host body, synthesize the main vitamins for the host, provide nutrition and prevent the invasion of pathogenic bacteria.
- Chinese herbal medicine feed additives are feed additives made from Chinese herbal medicines. Since traditional Chinese medicine is both a medicine and a natural product, it contains a variety of effective ingredients and basically has all the functions of a feed additive. It can be used as an independent type of feed additive. Fur animals can freely consume traditional Chinese medicine in the wild.
The role of Chinese herbal feed additives is mainly manifested in enhancing immunity, antibacterial and insect repellent and adjustment functions; improving animal production performance is mainly manifested in promoting growth, fattening and weight gain, promoting reproduction, etc.; improving the quality of animal products is mainly manifested in improving meat quality and improving Fur and other aspects; the improvement of feed quality is mainly manifested in that many Chinese herbal additives have the functions of supplementing nutrition, enhancing fragrance and deodorizing, anti-mold and antiseptic, thereby improving feed nutrition, stimulating animal appetite, and extending the shelf life of feed.
Characteristics of Chinese Herbal Medicine Feed Additives
Traditional Chinese medicine is derived from animals, plants, minerals and their products. It is an integral part of the earth and biological organisms. It maintains the natural state and biological activity of various component structures. At the same time, it has been tested for long-term practice and is beneficial to humans and animals. Before application, it is scientifically processed to remove harmful parts and maintain pure naturalness. This feature also lays the foundation for the wide range of sources, economic simplicity, and safety and reliability of traditional Chinese medicine feed additives.
Traditional Chinese medicine has dual functions of nutrition and medicine. Modern studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine contains a variety of ingredients, including polysaccharides, alkaloids, glycosides, etc., ranging from a few to dozens of species to hundreds of species. According to the modern “structure-activity relationship” theory, its versatility is obvious NS. In addition to containing the nutrients needed by the body, Chinese medicine is used as a feed additive to make a reasonable combination according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, so that the material effects are synergistic, and it produces a full range of coordination effects and a whole body of beneficial factors for the body. Modulation effect, and ultimately achieve the effect of improving animal production. This is unmatched by chemical compounds.
For a long time, the toxic side effects and drug resistance of chemicals, antibiotics, toxin binder and hormones have made medical experts scratching their heads, especially those that easily cause drug residues in animal products. This has become a concern of the whole society. Traditional Chinese medicine has small side effects, no drug resistance, and does not produce harmful residues in meat, eggs, milk and other animal products. It is a unique advantage of traditional Chinese medicine additives. This advantage conforms to the trend of the times and satisfies people’s return to nature. The desire to pursue green food.
The production process of antibiotics and chemical synthetic drug additives is particularly complicated, and some of them are costly and may bring about “three wastes” pollution. Traditional Chinese medicine originates from nature. Except for a few artificial plants, most of them are wild, with a wide range of sources and low cost. The preparation process of traditional Chinese medicine feed additives is relatively simple, the production does not pollute the environment, and the product itself is natural organic matter, with various chemical structures and biological activities stable, convenient storage and transportation, and not easy to deteriorate.
Application of Feed Additives
Chicken’s digestive tract is relatively short, and the intestinal mucosal barrier is fragile. Under intensive breeding conditions, compared with animals with long digestive tracts, they are more susceptible to harmful microorganisms, leading to various diseases. The use of feed additives is one of the effective means to prevent and treat intestinal diseases and improve the performance of broilers and laying hens. The growth rate of broiler chickens is fast, and it is greatly affected by the environment in intensive production. The application of feed additives can improve the balance of intestinal flora, reduce the incidence and mortality of intestinal diseases, increase slaughter weight, reduce feed and meat ratio, and can reduce Emissions of harmful gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the chicken house can improve product quality. The application of feed additives in layer breeding can not only prevent diseases, improve production performance and feed remuneration, but also improve the quality of eggs. Studies have shown that adding feed additives to the diet of laying hens can increase the Hastelloy unit of the eggs, reduce the cholesterol content of the eggs, and have the effects of improving the thickness of the egg shell and reducing the soft-shell eggs.
Current research and application show that feed additives have achieved good application effects in the breeding of piglets, sows and fattening pigs. Adding feed additives to piglet diets can promote piglet intestinal development, improve intestinal health, reduce diarrhea rate, and increase piglet growth rate and feed conversion rate. For lactating piglets, adding feed additives helps to establish a dominant flora of probiotics; for weaned piglets, it can improve the adverse effects of diarrhea and growth retardation caused by factors such as the secretion of their own digestive enzymes and the antigenicity of the diet. Studies have shown that the use of feed additives in sow diets can improve intestinal health, improve sow immunity and reproductive performance. After adding feed additives, it can improve the ability to regulate the balance of the bacterial flora in the gastrointestinal tract, increase the sow’s feed intake during lactation, inhibit weight loss, increase the fat and protein content in the sow’s milk, and improve the survival rate of weaned piglets and weaned piglets weight. Adding feed additives to the fattening pig diet can increase feed intake and feed conversion rate, improve health, shorten the fattening period, and have the effect of improving quality and reducing environmental pollution. Studies have shown that adding feed additives can reduce the diarrhea rate of fattening pigs, improve immunity, increase feed intake and feed digestibility, thereby increasing the utilization rate of diets and reducing the feed-to-meat ratio. In addition, feed additives have a certain promoting effect on increasing intramuscular fat and increasing the content of essential fatty acids, and can improve the quality of pork.
Studies have shown that feed additives can improve the weight gain rate of meat ruminants such as mutton sheep and beef cattle, increase the net meat rate of carcass, and improve meat quality. For milk-producing ruminants, feed additives can increase milk production, prolong the peak of milk production, increase milk fat rate, reduce the number of somatic cells in milk, and improve milk composition. It also has a certain effect on the prevention and treatment of mastitis and reproductive diseases. For calves whose digestive tract is not well developed, the use of additives can promote the establishment of the calf’s gastrointestinal tract flora, adjust the balance of the flora, and reduce the occurrence of calf diarrhea. In addition, the use of feed additives can promote the weight gain of calves.
The application of feed additives in aquatic products is embodied in two aspects: bait and water purification. Feed additives can improve the micro-ecological balance of aquatic animals, promote growth and development, play a role in preventing and controlling diseases and improving production performance. Probiotics can be colonized in fish intestines to promote the growth and development of fish and improve disease resistance. Feed additives can reduce the incidence of prawns and increase survival rate and yield. Feed additives can be used as immunostimulants and adjuvants for aquatic animals to promote the development of immune organs, improve the level of humoral immunity, and improve immune function. This effect has been verified in a variety of aquatic animals. The photosynthetic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria in feed additives can consume organic matter in the water body, remove ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrite nitrogen, etc., are important beneficial microorganisms currently applied to improve the aquaculture environment. Good application effects are obtained in breeding.