Palladium on Carbon CAS 7440-05-3 Palladium Black
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- Appearance: Black powder
- Assay: 99. 0%min
- Stock: In stock
- Sample: Available
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Palladium on Carbon: The Complete Guide
Palladium on Carbon for Sale
Basic Info of Palladium on Carbon
Palladium on carbon; Palladium black; Palladium metaal; Palladium dames; Palladium-carbon catalysts
Inorganic salt; Pharmaceutical raw materials
What is Palladium on Carbon?
Palladium (Pd) belongs to the group VIII element. In general, bulk palladium is silvery white. Its density is about 12.02g/cm3 at 20°C, the melting point is 1550°C, and the boiling point is 2900°C. It has good ductility and plasticity.
As a precious metal, palladium (Pd) is mainly used in the fields of catalysis and precision resistance. The general-sized Pd metal is a silver-white, softer material with good ductility and plasticity, but at the nanoscale size, its morphology and properties have undergone great changes. At ultra-fine size, palladium and its dispersions generally appear black and have a large specific surface area. The most striking thing is the excellent hydrogen absorption properties of Pd. At room temperature and 1 standard atmospheric pressure, palladium metal can absorb hydrogen more than 800 times its own volume. When the pressure is constant, the hydrogen absorption capacity of palladium decreases with the increase of temperature. After hydrogen absorption, its lattice constant can change, the volume becomes larger, and properties such as conductivity also decrease with the increase of hydrogen absorption. The excellent hydrogen absorption ability enables palladium to be widely used in gaseous reactions, especially hydrogenation or dehydrogenation reactions. Therefore, catalysts with palladium as the main active component are the first choice catalysts for various reactions.
Classification and Application of Palladium-Carbon Catalysts
Palladium on carbon (Pd/C) catalyst is a supported catalyst prepared by loading the active component palladium on a carrier activated carbon in a certain way. Although Pd has good catalytic performance, bulk palladium or sponge palladium has poor mechanical properties, poor thermal stability, and relatively expensive price, so it is not suitable for direct use in catalytic reactions. Therefore, people use a carrier with certain mechanical strength, high specific surface area, and suitable chemical properties to support and disperse Pd, so that the above problems have been solved. Activated carbon is widely used as a support for the preparation of palladium-carbon (Pd/C) catalysts due to its high specific surface area, good thermal stability and mechanical strength. Pd/C catalysts have some advantages that homogeneous catalysts do not have, so they have been widely studied and applied.
Classification of Pd/C catalysts
According to the Pd mass fraction (loading capacity) supported on activated carbon, common Pd/C catalysts can be divided into loadings ranging from 0.5wt% to 30wt%, among which, 0.5%, 1%, 1.25% , 3%, 5%, 10% common.
Pd/C catalyst application
Due to the excellent catalytic properties of palladium and the stability and dispersion of Pd on the support, Pd/C catalysts are used in many fields. For example: hydrogenation reactions of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, nitriles, imines, azides, etc., as well as hydrogenolysis reactions of cyclopropane, benzyl ester derivatives, epoxides, hydrazines and halides, etc. It has been widely used, and these reactions involve many industries such as petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, and new energy. Pd/C catalyst is the core of catalytic reaction processes such as hydrorefining. Pd/C catalyst has irreplaceable value in various fields, especially in the field of chemical synthesis, and because its carrier is relatively easy to obtain, its application range is very wide.
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Preparation Method of Palladium-Carbon Catalyst
The impregnation method is the easiest method to prepare the catalyst, and it is also the most commonly used method in industry. In most cases, the solution of salts or other compounds that are easily soluble in solvent is used to contact the carrier. After these salts or compounds are loaded on the surface of the carrier, the solvent is volatilized by heating, and then calcined or used with a reducing agent. activate the catalyst.
Deactivation and Prevention of Palladium-Carbon Catalyst
Wear loss of palladium-carbon catalyst
The wear of palladium on carbon catalyst is mainly caused by the following reasons:
1) In the process of catalyst transportation, storage and filling, due to vibration and collision, friction occurs between catalyst particles and between catalyst particles and equipment and equipment, causing catalyst powder to fall;
2) During the production process, due to the fluctuation of the liquid level of the reactor, the catalyst active component palladium on the catalyst bed is lost under the direct flushing of the feed solution;
3) If the process adjustment is not timely, if the temperature of the feed material changes too much, the liquid in the hydrogenation kettle will be “flashed”, and the friction between the particles will be intensified.
- Scaling of palladium-carbon catalysts
The side reactions of the oxidation reaction will generate some macromolecular organic compounds and metal corrosion products. These by-products are highly viscous and adsorb on the catalyst surface and micropores, covering a part of the catalyst’s active center and hindering the hydrogenation reaction. Higher levels of these sticky substances can cause catalyst deactivation when the oxidation unit is on and off.
Palladium-carbon catalyst poisoning
1) When the impurity concentration contained in the raw material is too high, the active center palladium combines with the impurity, resulting in a decrease in the effective active center concentration, and the catalyst is poisoned. It takes a period of hydrogenation to gradually recover its activity.
2) Permanent poisoning
Sulfur can permanently poison the catalyst. After the sulfide (such as sulfate, etc.) enters the reaction system with the raw materials and auxiliary materials, it reacts with palladium to generate dipalladium sulfide or tetrapalladium sulfide, and these two reaction products are reduced to metal elemental palladium with large grains. The activity of palladium is much lower than that of microcrystalline palladium in a highly dispersed state. Therefore, through the above description, it can be determined that palladium carbon will have a partial loss in the production process, and the content will drop a part.
- Palladium – WikiPedia
- Yu Jianmin. The current situation and countermeasures of secondary resource recovery of domestic palladium and platinum[J]. Resource Regeneration, 2007, (1): 46-47.
- He Guodong, Sun Qin, Yang Asan. Preparation of palladium/carbon catalyst and its catalytic performance in the synthesis of 1,3-propanediol[J]. Zhejiang Chemical Industry, 2007, 38(4): 6-14.
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