Benefits of Sorbitol
Sorbitol has a chemical formula of C6H14O6 and also has 2 optical isomers, D as well as L. It is the main photosynthetic item of Rosaceae plants and also is primarily made use of as a sugar. It has a trendy pleasant taste as well as a sweet taste of regarding Fifty percent of sucrose, calorific worth is similar to sucrose.
Table of Sorbitol
What is Sorbitol?
Sorbitol has a great wonderful taste, as well as its sweet taste is about 50% -70% of that of sucrose. 1g of sorbitol creates 16.7 kJ of heat in the human body. It is not exchanged glucose in the blood after usage and also is not affected by insulin
Sorbitol has good hydrating residential properties, which can maintain food with a particular amount of moisture, stop drying out, as well as stop sugar, salt, and so on from rainfall and also formation. Unpredictable polyols, so it also has the feature of keeping the aroma of food.
- It can be used as a raw material for the manufacturing of vitamin C. Vitamin C can be gotten from sorbitol with fermentation as well as chemical synthesis.
- It can be used as nutritious sweetener, wetting agent, chelating representative and also stabilizer.
- It can be utilized for manufacturing materials and plastics, dividing as well as evaluating low-boiling factor oxygen-containing compounds, and so on. It can also be used as gas chromatography fixed liquid, thickener, hardener, insecticide, etc.
- It can be utilized as a humidity conditioner for toothpaste, cosmetics and also tobacco.
- It can be made use of as a diuretic and dehydrating representative to deal with cerebral edema and raised intracranial pressure, to treat raised intraocular pressure in glaucoma, and to deal with edema and also oliguria with normal heart as well as kidney feature.
- It can be made use of as a water-retaining representative for aquatic items. The ratio of sucrose 2.1% + sorbitol 3.15% + compound phosphate 1.00% can efficiently decrease the water task of dried out fish fillets and raise the task of Ca-ATPase.
Physical and Chemical Properties
- Form of existence
The main forms of sorbitol are liquid and solid: liquid sorbitol is mostly 50% or 70% colorless transparent aqueous solution; solid sorbitol is white needle-like, flaky or granular crystalline powder, and some contain 0.5 or 1 molecule of water of crystallization.
- Flavor and sweetness
Sorbitol has a unique flavor, a cool and refreshing taste, and its sweetness is about 60% of that of sucrose at the same concentration.
- Solubility and viscosity
Sorbitol is very soluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol and acetic acid, etc. At 20°C, the solubility of sorbitol is 220g/100mL of water, and that of sucrose is only 195g/100mL of water. Due to its high solubility in water, sorbitol is not easy to crystallize during industrial production. Under the same conditions, the viscosity of sorbitol aqueous solution is slightly lower than that of sucrose.
- Hygroscopicity and moisture retention
Sorbitol has great hygroscopicity, its hygroscopicity is much greater than that of sucrose, slightly smaller than that of glycerin, and it is easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate when the relative air humidity is high; but the hygroscopicity of sorbitol in the γ crystal form is small. Extend the shelf life of products.
- Freezing point
The aqueous solution that reduces sorbitol will cause the freezing point to drop, and when it is applied to frozen food, it can avoid the appearance of ice slag, reduce the precipitation of crystal suspension or precipitation, and effectively improve the taste of the product.
The sorbitol molecule does not contain reducing groups, and its chemical properties are relatively stable, non-combustible, non-volatile, acid and alkali resistant, and not easily oxidized by air. Sorbitol has good thermal stability; under certain reaction conditions, sorbitol can undergo dehydration oxidation, esterification, etherification and other reactions, and can also chelate various metal ions in strong acid and strong alkali solutions.
- Osmotic pressure
The molecular weight of sorbitol is slightly larger than that of glucose, so the osmotic pressure is close to that of glucose, which is 1.88 times that of sucrose. Higher osmotic pressure means correspondingly stronger resistance to microorganisms, which can be used to control microorganisms in fruit and vegetable sauces.
Application of Sorbitol
Sorbitol is a sugar substitute and its INS number and also E number are 420 when made use of in food. Sorbitol is about 60% as sweet as sucrose (table sugar).
Sorbitol is referred to as a nutritive sweetener since it offers dietary power: 2.6 kcal (11 kJ per) gram versus approximately 4 kcal (17 kJ) for carbohydrates. It’s typically utilized in diet plan foods (consisting of diet plan beverages as well as gelato), mints, cough medicine, and also sugar-free eating gum. The majority of germs can not make use of sorbitol for energy, however it can be gradually fermented in the mouth by Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium that triggers dental caries. In contrast, several various other sugar alcohols, such as isomaltulose and xylitol, are thought about non-acidogenic.
It also occurs naturally in many drupes as well as berries of sorbus trees.
Like other sugar alcohols, foods having sorbitol can create intestinal distress. Sorbitol is utilized by mouth as a laxative or enema. Sorbitol works as a laxative by attracting water into the large intestinal tract to boost bowel movements. Sorbitol has been established to be safe for use in older grownups, although its usage is not suggested without a medical professional’s supervision. Sorbitol, found in some dried fruits, might contribute to the laxative results of prunes. Sorbitol was first discovered in 1872 in the fresh juice of hill ash (Sorbus aucuparia) berries. It is additionally found in the fruits of apples, plums, pears, cherries, days, peaches as well as apricots.
Various other medical applications
Sorbitol is made use of in bacterial culture media to distinguish pathogenic E. coli O157: H7 from a lot of various other E. coli strains since, unlike 93% of known E. coli pressures, sorbitol is typically incapable to ferment sorbitol.
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (trade name Kayexalate) utilizing a sorbitol-based ion exchange material for the therapy of hyperkalemia (elevated potassium in the blood). The material exchanges salt ions in the intestinal tracts for potassium ions, while sorbitol aids get rid of defecation. In 2010, the US FDA released a warning that this combination enhances the risk of gastrointestinal death.
Sorbitol is also utilized in the manufacturing of soft pills to keep solitary doses of liquid medicine.
Sorbitol is commonly used as a humectant and thickener in modern cosmetics. It is also made use of in mouthwash as well as tooth paste. Due to sorbitol’s high refractive index, some clear gels can just be made with sorbitol.
Sorbitol is utilized as an antifreeze additive (blended with sucrose as well as salt polyphosphate) in the manufacturing of surimi (processed fish paste). It is likewise made use of as a humectant in some cigarettes.
Sorbitol can be used not just as a sugar alternative in low-sugar foods, however also as a humectant in cookies as well as low-moisture foods such as peanut butter and dried out fruit. It is likewise important throughout baking as it works as a plasticizer and slows down the aging procedure.
A mix of sorbitol as well as potassium nitrate has actually had some success as an amateur solid rocket fuel.
Sorbitol is taken into consideration as a potential key chemical intermediate for the production of gas from biomass resources. Carbohydrate fractions in biomass such as cellulose undertake consecutive hydrolysis as well as hydrogenation in the existence of metal drivers to produce sorbitol. The complete reduction of sorbitol opens the way to alkanes such as hexane, which can be utilized as biofuels. The hydrogen needed for this response can be generated by aqueous-phase catalytic reforming of sorbitol.
19 C 6 H 14 O 6 → 13 C 6 H 14 + 36 CO 2 + 42 H 2 O
The above chain reaction is exothermic, with 1.5 moles of sorbitol creating regarding 1 mole of hexane. When hydrogen is co-fed, no carbon dioxide is generated.
Sorbitol-based polyols are utilized in the manufacturing of polyurethane foams for the construction sector.
Yeast is also added after electroporation in the makeover protocol to allow cell recovery by enhancing the osmolarity of the tool.
Preparation of Sorbitol
The industrial production methods of sorbitol include electrolytic reduction and catalytic hydrogenation. Due to the high energy consumption of the electrolytic reduction method, intermittent or continuous high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation technology is mainly used at present, and nickel-containing catalysts are generally used.
The concentration is 50% glucose aqueous solution, in a heating kettle with a stirrer, under the conditions of 120-150°C, hydrogen pressure of 7 MPa, pH value of 6, catalyst dosage of 3%-6% (based on glucose) , hydrogenation continued for 2-4 h, then the catalyst was separated by settling and filtered, then decolorized by ion exchange and activated carbon, and evaporated in vacuo to obtain an aqueous solution with a content of 70%. The yield of sorbitol is 96%-98%.