Alkyl Ketene Dimer CAS 144245-85-2 AKD

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  • Appearance: White to yellow flake
  • Purity: 99. 0%min
  • Stock: In stock
  • Sample: Available
  • Zhishang Chemical: Alkyl Ketene Dimer Supplier & Manufacturer

Basic Info

What is Alkyl Ketene Dimer?

Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is a kind of organic compound based on oxetan-2-one 4-membered ring system, which is also the central structural element of propanolactone and diethylene ketone. On the oxocyclobutane ring of the alkyl vinyl ketone dimer related to the technology, there is a C12 – C16 alkyl group at position 3 and a C13 – C17 alkylene group at position 4.

Alkyl ketone dimer is mainly used for sizing paper and paperboard, as well as hydrophobic cellulose fiber. Such modified products are characterized by higher mechanical strength and less water, ink or printing ink penetration.

AKD has slave β- Hydrophobic alkyl group with extended lactide ring. A specific example comes from the ethylene ketone dimerization of stearic acid. This vinyl ketone is produced by the pyrolysis of stearyl chloride. AKD reacts with hydroxyl groups on cellulose through esterification. Esterification competes with AKD hydrolysis. Before the development of AKD, hydrophobicity was given by adding rosin to paper.

Related to AKD is alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA). For AKD, ASA reacts with the hydroxyl group of cellulose to form an ester, which fixes the hydrophobic group on the surface. ASA is prepared from unsaturated hydrocarbon and maleic anhydride via olefin reaction

Alkyl Ketene Dimer Uses

Alkyl ketone dimer (AKD) was industrialized in 1956, when it was just used for unique paper calling for re sizing. Recently, society paper has actually primarily transformed to AKD neutral sizing, making it much more commonly utilized. 

This product is an alkyl ketene dimer made from greater fatty acids (C ≥ 12) through acylation as well as dehydrochlorination. As the raw powder of AKD and neutral sizing representative, this item is made use of to make emulsion of neutral sizing representative for pulp.

  • AKD wax: at present, the manufacturing of AKD wax can be non-toxic, waste water complimentary, odor cost-free and pollution-free. It was produced by solvent totally free technique and also acquired national patent. Liquid AKD wax can fix the problem of paper sliding. Continual production of AKD wax has boosted the automation as well as manufacturing efficiency of this technique.
  • AKD lotion: In recent years, the production of fast maturing AKD lotion used for in machine coating light coated paper, AKD lotion with strong anti-interference performance for box board paper, and surface sizing AKD with good lotion stability has been greatly improved.

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Application of Alkyl Ketene Dimer

Preparation of Alkyl Ketene Dimer

In 1945, the commercial synthesis of alkylated ketene dimer (still called ketone ethyl ketone back then) from long-chain acyl chloride in inert solvent (such as ether or benzene) with triethylamine as tertiary amine under anhydrous problems was patented. After filtering insoluble triethylamine hydrochloride and evaporating the solvent, long-chain alkyl chain dimer was acquired with a return of greater than 90%.

从硬脂酰氯中合成 von C18-AKD

Utilizing other solvents, such as carboxylic acid esters or ketones, it is less complicated to separate trialkylamine hydrochloride or various other amines, such as N, N, N ‘, N’ – tetramethyl-hexane-1,6-diamine does not give any type of considerable advantages.

A method without solvent is also described in which the obtained amine hydrochloride is filtered out or extracted with dilute acid aqueous solution.

A continuous process in which long-chain acyl chloride and tertiary amine (such as dimethylisopropylamine, dimethylcyclohexylamine or triethylamine) are supplied to a tubular reactor, a kneader or, preferably, a twin-screw extruder or a planetary roller extruder, respectively, without solvent, and provide more than 90% lactone content in a short reaction time at 90 and 110 ° C. Treatment by phase separation or acid extraction.


  1. Alkyl ketene dimer – WikiPedia
  2. US 2627477, W.F. Downey, “Higher alkyl ketene dimer emulsion”

Alkyl Ketene Dimer Supplier and Manufacturer

As a alkyl ketene dimer supplier and manufacturer with a strict standard product quality system certificate, Zhishang Chemical has long been providing the best alkyl ketene dimer raw materials to customers all over the world.

Over the years, relying on professional team experience and customer-centric team concept to meet customer needs in a timely manner, our company enjoys a high reputation in the world. At present, our company has served more than 6,000 customers and has established long-term cooperative relations with customers from many countries.

If you have a demand for alkyl ketene dimer and related products, please contact our service staff Zhishang Chemical – White directly, and we will provide you with high-quality products at the best price.

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