Polyacrylamide CAS 9003-05-8 PAM
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Polyacrylamide: The Complete Guide
Polyacrylamide for Sale
Basic Info of Polyacrylamide
PAM polyacrylamide; Acrylamide,polymers; Acrylamidehomopolymer
Food additives; Inorganic salt; Organic raw materials
What is Polyacrylamide?
Polyacrylamide is abbreviated as PAM. It is typically a macromolecule polymer with a head-to-tail bond structure of acrylamide monomers, which is a tough glassy solid at area temperature. As a result of various preparation approaches, the products include white powder, transparent beads and flakes. The density is 1.302 g/cm3 (23 ℃), the glass transition temperature level is 153 ℃, and the softening temperature is 210 ℃. Has excellent thermal stability. Soluble in water, the aqueous service is clear and transparent, and also its viscosity comes to be viscous obviously with the increase of the molecular weight of the polymer, and also has a logarithmic increase or lower partnership with the concentration of the polymer. Besides a couple of solvents such as acetic acid, acrylic acid, chloroacetic acid, ethylene glycol, glycerol as well as formamide, it is usually insoluble in natural solvents.
It is formed by free radical polymerization of acrylamide monomers, and numerous methods such as service polymerization, inverse emulsion polymerization, suspension polymerization and also strong state polymerization can be used. The molecular weight of the item is required to be controlled, water-soluble and also much less residual monomer.
Polyacrylamide is one of the most extensively made use of water-soluble polymers, with a lot of necklace amide teams on its molecular foundation. The chemical task of the amide group is very large, and also it can form a collection of by-products with a selection of compounds. Polyacrylamide has numerous features such as flocculation, thickening, drag decrease, bond, colloid stablizing, movie development as well as scale restraint, and is extensively used in papermaking, mining, coal cleaning, metallurgy, oil exploration and also other commercial markets. vital chemicals.
Polyacrylamide PAM has the water solubility of polymer material chemicals and its cheerful acyl groups on its carbon chain. It is widely used in printing and dyeing, paper industry, mineral processing plants, coal preparation, oil fields, metallurgical industry, decorative building materials, wastewater treatment and other fields. Polyacrylamide is used as lubricating fluid, granule, clay stabilizer, oil displacing agent, fluid loss reducer and tackifier in drilling, alkalizing, fracturing, water plugging, cementing, secondary oilfields, and tertiary oil recovery. It has been widely used and is an extremely important oil and gas field chemical.
- For sludge treatment, the corresponding PAM design as well as requirements can be made use of according to the attributes of the sludge, and the sludge therapy can be moderately performed prior to the sludge goes into the filter press. Cloth, the filter press does not spread for a very long time, the mud cake is thick, the drying rate is high, and the dampness material of the filter cake is below 80%.
- It is made use of for domestic sewer treatment, chemical wastewater and natural chemical sewage remedy, such as printing and dyeing area, paper market, ethanol field, electroplating process area, pharmaceutical manufacturing facility, vineyard, iron manufacturing facility, tobacco manufacturing facility, pharmaceutical business, food handling Factory these.
- Made use of in the paper sector, firstly, to enhance the retention rate of fillers as well as colorants. In order to minimize the discharge of raw materials and also environmental pollution to the native environment; the second is to improve the compressive strength of printing paper (including completely dry compressive stamina and also damp compressive toughness), furthermore, the application of polyacrylamide PAM can additionally boost paper tear resistance as well as Permeable structure to alter aesthetic effects and packaging printing efficiency, additionally utilized in food and also tea bags.
- It is extensively made use of in petrochemical market, oil field, drilling liquid, waste sludge therapy, staying clear of water channeling, minimizing frictional resistance, enhancing recovery degree, and tertiary oil recovery.
- Used as a desizing agent for textiles, the slurry performance is secure, the sizing is less, the textile damage rate is low, and also the nylon textile is smooth.
- It is made use of in everyday chemical factories. In moisturizing masks, it is commonly integrated with lauryl methacrylate-7 and also C13-14 isoalkane to develop a moisturizing emulsion-like thickening, emulsion as well as thickening agent.
- In other industries, it is made use of for the healing and also utilization of concentrated feed healthy protein, with steady top quality and also great performance. The recycled protein powder has no negative influence on the survival price of chickens, weight gain, and also egg laying. Anti-corrosion coverings, architectural coverings, grouting resources for civil design, water stopping, developing products sector, improving concrete quality, adhesives in the construction industry, caulking repair work and fluid blocking agents, land renovation, industrial production of electroplating process, industrial production of printing and also dyeing plants, etc.
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Application of Polyacrylamide
As a polymer dispersant or polymer flocculant, polyacrylamide products can support the system or flocculate and also precipitate fragments in the system, as well as have important applications in water therapy, oil extraction market, papermaking and various other areas; on top of that, polyacrylamide water The gel has excellent histocompatibility and also porous structure, as well as also has important application research in the biomedical market.
As individuals pay an increasing number of interest to environmental protection, the usage of polyacrylamide items in the field of water therapy is raising. Today, polyacrylamide is mainly made use of as a flocculant as well as flocculant in water supply therapy as well as sewage therapy. It has the advantages of minimizing the amount of flocculant, enhancing the quality of wastewater therapy, raising water treatment efficiency, minimizing scale development, and securing therapy tools.
The result of polyacrylamide on water top quality is primarily influenced by factors such as water temperature, pH value, mixing rate and time. A new sort of porous cationic polyacrylamide/graphene oxide aerogel was prepared by freeze-drying approach, and also it was related to the adsorption of standard pigments in liquid solution. It was discovered that the adsorption procedure was an endothermic process, as well as the solution’s adsorption pH worth, adsorbent dose, call time as well as temperature level have a wonderful influence on the adsorption impact. When the pH value of the solution enhances from 2.6 to 8.9, the adsorption rate rises from 90% to 99% as necessary, and also the computed optimum adsorption amount can get to 1034.3 mg/ g, as well as the adsorption system satisfies a pseudo-second-order kinetic design. Porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres are prepared, the optimum adsorption capacity of the microspheres to cationic pigments can get to 1990 mg/g, and the microspheres have excellent regenerability, can be recycled many times, and also have great application leads.
The flocculation effect of polyacrylamide on different water resources such as river water, reservoir water and lake water was researched. The research found that polyacrylamide has better flocculation effect on river water with high turbidity, and poor treatment effect on water chroma and also heavy metal ions.; It has great flocculation effect on algae in lakes; the outcomes of this research have particular reference for water employees.
Preparation of Polyacrylamide
At present, the synthesis methods of polyacrylamide mainly include aqueous solution polymerization, inverse emulsion polymerization, inverse microemulsion polymerization, and aqueous dispersion polymerization. The combination of the polymerization method and the above method promotes the development of polyacrylamide production technology.
The polymerization of acrylamide monomer in aqueous solution is called aqueous polymerization. Acrylamide monomer is easily soluble in water, and its polymerization rate and relative molecular mass in aqueous solution are higher than those in organic solvent. Aqueous solution polymerization of acrylamide mainly adopts redox initiation system, and its product properties are easily affected by factors such as solvent, dosage and temperature.
The polyacrylamide product produced by aqueous solution polymerization has low solid content, but it has the advantages of simple operation, low equipment requirements, high monomer conversion rate, and less pollution. Therefore, even if aqueous solution polymerization is the earliest method used for the production of polyacrylamide, But it is still the most commonly used production method. At present, polyacrylamide products produced by aqueous solution polymerization are mainly dry polyacrylamide powders, which are generally polymerized by medium concentration (20% to 35%) acrylamide monomers. The medium-concentration polymerization process is mainly a belt-type sheet polymerization process and a kettle-type bulk polymerization process.
The main belt polymerization processes include: American Cyanamide Corporation polymerization process, American Nalco Corporation polymerization process, etc.; kettle type bulk polymerization processes mainly include Japan Sanyo Chemical Corporation polymerization process, Japan Mitsubishi Corporation polymerization process and so on. my country mainly adopts medium-concentration polymerization process, mostly fixed and mobile polymerization equipment, and hot air continuous drying process.
Inverse emulsion polymerization was proposed by Vanderhoff in 1962. It refers to the addition of water-soluble polymerized monomers to non-polar organic solvents, and polymerization occurs under the action of water-in-oil emulsifiers. The nucleation mechanism is glue. Beam nucleation and homogeneous nucleation mechanisms. Generally, inverse emulsion polymerization is composed of monomer solution, organic medium and emulsifier, and in the polymerization reaction, the steric hindrance of the emulsifier molecule, the hydration, the amount of initiator, and the polarity of N and O in the polymerized monomer are opposite to the monomer. The conversion rate and the relative molecular weight of the polymer have a great influence.
At present, the production process of the inverse emulsion of polyacrylamide is complicated and the cost is high, but its solid content is high, the viscosity is low, and it is easy to use, so the inverse emulsion polymerization product is favored by consumers. The graft copolymerization of acrylamide and konjac mannan was studied by inverse emulsion polymerization technology, and the grafting rate could reach 95%. The effects of initiator, emulsifier, monomer concentration and reaction temperature on the polymerization were also discussed. In addition, after the introduction of konjac mannan, the water solubility of polyacrylamide is increased, and it has better thickening performance. Inverse microemulsion polymerization technology is a polymerization technology developed on the basis of inverse emulsion polymerization technology. Microemulsion preparation methods mainly include Schulman method and Shah method. Inverse microemulsion is generally transparent or translucent, which has higher stability than inverse emulsion, and microemulsion has isotropic properties. Inverse microemulsion polymerization has a fast reaction speed, and there is no significant constant rate period during the polymerization process. The nucleation mechanism is mainly the continuous nucleation of droplets and the homogeneous nucleation mechanism, and factors such as emulsifier, monomer concentration, and temperature affect the reaction. larger.
The anionic polyelectrolyte was prepared by inverse microemulsion polymerization using acrylamide and sodium vinylbenzenesulfonate. The reaction was initiated by (NH4)2S2O8 and NaHSO3 in cyclohexane at 40℃. The nonionic surfactant was Span80. Compared with Tween80 (HLB=8.58), the reactivity ratios of the two monomers were calculated by the Kelen–Tudos method. The random copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid and sodium p-styrene sulfonate were prepared by inverse microemulsion technology, and the effects of initiator concentration, monomer material ratio, reaction temperature and other factors on the polymerization reaction were studied. There was no apparent constant rate period, and the polymer glass transition temperature was 115.5°C.
Dispersion polymerization is a kind of precipitation polymerization, proposed by ICI Company, and its system is composed of stabilizer, reaction monomer, initiator and so on. When the polymer molecular chain generated by the polymerization reaction reaches a certain length, the polymer is precipitated from the solvent to form microspheres, and under the action of the stabilizer, a stable dispersion system is formed. For non-water-soluble monomers, organic phase dispersion polymerization is generally used; water-soluble polymers are generally used for water-phase dispersion polymerization.
Water-phase dispersion polymerization uses water as the solvent, which greatly reduces the use of organic solvents and surfactants, and reduces the pollution to the environment. It is a green and environmentally friendly high-tech and the development direction of polyacrylamide production technology. The amphoteric polyacrylamide terpolymer was synthesized by dispersion polymerization, and the synthesis process was optimized.
Poly[AM-IA-DMDAAC] amphoteric spherical particles were prepared by aqueous dispersion polymerization. It was found that with the increase of the stabilizer concentration, the particles first increased and then decreased, but with the increase of the monomer concentration, the particles showed an increased particle size. trend; and the dispersion system still has good fluidity after being placed for 6 to 8 months.
At present, on the basis of traditional polyacrylamide synthesis technology, technologies such as radiation polymerization, living controllable polymerization, and seed polymerization have been introduced, which have become the research hotspots of scholars at home and abroad. These new methods have promoted the development of polyacrylamide synthesis technology. develop. Among them, there are many studies on ultraviolet radiation polymerization and living/controlled radical polymerization.
Ultraviolet light-initiated polymerization is a simple and most widely used polymerization technology. It has the advantages of low reaction temperature, short reaction time and fast reaction rate, and the reaction can be initiated by adding a small amount of initiator to the system under the action of ultraviolet light. A green and environmentally friendly polymerization technology. In order to reduce the polymerization temperature and speed up the reaction and heat dissipation, the acrylamide inverse emulsion was subjected to UV ultraviolet light in a rotating disc reactor to initiate the reaction to undergo inverse emulsion polymerization to prepare a polyacrylamide emulsion. The relative molecular weight of the polymer can reach 107 ; And the influence of monomer concentration, rotating speed, flow rate, ultraviolet light intensity and other factors on the polymerization reaction rate, monomer conversion rate and the relative molecular weight of the polymer was studied. At low temperature, UV light is used to initiate inverse microemulsion polymerization of acrylamide. Due to the low activation energy of the light-induced reaction, the temperature has a weak effect on the Rp and [η] of the reaction. The kinetic equation of the reaction is Rp=[IUV] 0.4972[M]1.5048[E]-0.5731.
Controlled/living polymerization technology is through reversible chain termination or chain transfer, so that the free radical concentration in the system is controlled very low and double bond termination is inhibited, and the relative molecular mass and distribution of the product can also be controlled. Polyacrylamide polymer of specific structure and relative molecular mass. et al introduced RAFT technology into inverse emulsion polymerization to synthesize polyacrylamide. When a water-soluble initiator is used, the nucleation mechanism is droplet nucleation; when an oil-soluble initiator is used, the nucleation mechanism is micelle nucleation or Homogeneous nucleation. Linear poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] was prepared by RAFT inverse emulsion polymerization, and then cross-linked with N,N’-bis(acryloyl)cystamine to synthesize reduction-sensitive poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide]. The nanogel can be used as a potential protein carrier application.