Oxytocin CAS 50-56-6
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- Appearance: White powder
- Purity: 99. 0%min
- Stock: In stock
- Sample: Available
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Oxytocin: The Complete Guide
Oxytocin for Sale
Basic Info of Oxytocin
Oxytocin Acetate; (1-Hemicystine)-oxytocin; 3-Lsoleucine-8-leucinevasopressin
Pharmaceutical raw materials
What is Oxytocin?
Oxytocin is a uterine contraction medication that can be extracted or chemically synthesized from the posterior pituitary gland of animals., strengthen its tightening, the struggling womb is most conscious oxytocin (enhanced estrogen secretion), the premature womb is less competent to this product, the womb is much less responsive to oxytocin in the very early or second trimester, and also slowly raises in the late pregnancy, peaked prior to shipment. A small dose can reinforce the rhythmic contraction of the smooth muscle mass at the bottom of the womb, make it more powerful as well as faster, the tightening regularity is similar to that of all-natural childbirth, and also keep polarity as well as balance, so it is medically made use of for induction as well as induction of labor. Large dosages trigger tonic tightening of uterine muscular tissues, clinically used to press blood vessels in between muscular tissue fibers, stop postpartum hemorrhage and also postpartum involution, and promote lactation, make mammary air ducts contract, and advertise milk discharge from the bust, however it can not raise the secretion of milk., can only advertise milk discharge.
It needs to be noted that when it is made use of for induction of labor or labor induction, the dosage and drip rate ought to be strictly regulated to avoid creating tonic uterine tightenings, causing fetal asphyxia or uterine rupture. It is forbidden to utilize when there is disproportion in between the head as well as pelvis, irregular fetal placement or various other unusual birth canal. Oxytocin prep work separated as well as removed from bovine and porcine pituitary periodically create allergic reactions, and also rapid intravenous infusion can trigger light vasodilation and blood pressure decrease. The fastest leaking rate does not surpass 40 to 60 decreases per min. A little bigger dosages are also used for postpartum hemorrhage, afterbirth, etc. In recent times, it has actually been found that this item has a good impact on pulmonary hemoptysis, and also has a great impact on gastrointestinal function relaxation after vagus nerve resection or stomach surgical treatment.
It is ineffective when taken by mouth as well as is easily destroyed by digestive juices, but can be taken in by the oral mucosa. Intravenous mixture of 0.01 IU can create physiological tightening of the uterus (with rhythm, polarity and also proportion) within 1 to 3 minutes, with short retention time and half-life A huge dose of only 2.5 to 3 mins makes the uterine muscle mass tonic. It has a synergistic effect with prostaglandins.
Oxytocin is usually utilized in combination with ergot preparations to deal with postpartum hemorrhage; unavoidable losing the unborn baby; generally made use of for late maternity induction and extended labor brought on by uterine atony throughout labor; for oxytocin level of sensitivity test; for oxytocin excitement test; to help postpartum milk Excretion; hemoptysis; postoperative gastrointestinal mobility slow.
Oxytocin is mainly synthesized in the cells of the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, stored in the posterior pituitary, and released into the blood. The main function of oxytocin is to promote the contraction of uterine smooth muscle, and it is the drug of choice for clinical induction of labor, prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage.
Repeated bleeding and massive hemoptysis can cause shock and asphyxia and significantly increase the mortality rate of patients. At present, the medical treatment of hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis is the first choice for the treatment of vasopressin combined with nitroglycerin. The main components of the former are oxytocin and vasopressin, and vasopressin can Constrict capillaries and arterioles, especially visceral blood vessels, and thus play a role in hemostasis. The latter mainly promotes the release of nitric oxide, activates guanylate cyclase, and increases cyclic guanylate in smooth muscle and other tissues. , regulates the contractile state of smooth muscle, causes peripheral venous vascular bed expansion, keeps blood in the periphery, and reduces blood return to the heart. In addition, dilation of arteries reduces peripheral resistance, which in turn reduces the increased central venous pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and systemic vascular resistance. achieve the purpose of hemostasis.
However, because vasopressin contains vasopressin, which can increase the reabsorption of water by renal tubules and has an anti-diuretic effect, hyponatremia is prone to occur when vasopressin is used. Oxytocin is one of the components of vasopressin, which can reduce pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary blood flow by dilating peripheral blood vessels to achieve hemostasis. Compared with vasopressin, oxytocin does not contain vasopressin, so the incidence of adverse reactions is also significantly lower than the control group. In addition, oxytocin increases coronary blood flow, so its use should be safer in patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and heart failure.
For such patients, medical treatment is generally based on comprehensive treatment, plus vasopressin treatment, with a success rate of about 60%. Its mechanism of action is mainly to reduce portal blood flow by constricting visceral blood vessels It can cause severe cardiac and cerebral complications, which limits its wide application.
Inspired by the successful cases of oxytocin in the treatment of hemoptysis, related scholars have studied oxytocin in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The results showed that the success rate of hemostasis of oxytocin in the treatment of cirrhotic portal hypertension complicated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding can reach 90%. There is no significant difference between oxytocin and vasopressin after statistical analysis, and the side effects are significantly less than the latter.
The blood loss of TURP is mainly concentrated during the operation and 24 hours after the operation. The patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia are all elderly and often have underlying medical diseases. The large amount of bleeding can easily induce or aggravate the underlying diseases. Bed rest and the use of conventional hemostatic drugs after TURP increase the risk of thrombosis. risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
Oxytocin acts on the smooth muscle of the prostate, does not interfere with the function of the blood system itself, and will not cause hypercoagulability in patients after TURP; the drug has a short half-life and is evenly pumped into the vein, and the blood drug concentration is maintained at a low level , to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of the drug, and to avoid adverse drug reactions. The principle of oxytocin for hemostasis after TURP may be: the prostate blood vessels enter the prostate tissue from the prostate capsule, and oxytocin induces the contraction of the prostate capsule, compressing the blood vessels passing through the tissue, and has a hemostatic effect; Binding to oxytocin receptors, it constricts the blood vessels in the prostate tissue to stop bleeding.
Studies have shown that excessive oxytocin binds to oxytocin receptors in the fetal brain through the placental barrier and blood-brain barrier during childbirth, desensitizing and inactivating oxytocin receptors, downregulating receptor biosynthesis, and causing abnormal behavior in children. such as autism.
Plasma oxytocin levels were positively correlated with age in normal children, and prepubertal levels of oxytocin were in line with other hormone levels, but not in autistic children. Moreover, oxytocin levels in normal children were positively correlated with social mobility skills, while oxytocin levels in autistic children were negatively correlated with social mobility skills. At the same time, studies have shown that early exposure to oxytocin-related maternal behavior is related to the development of children’s neuropsychiatric system, and can affect their reproductive and social behaviors in adulthood.
The male reproductive tract can secrete oxytocin, and Leydig cells of the testis produce oxytocin, which is involved in the contraction of seminiferous tubules, and regulates the production of testosterone and the development of sperm. During sexual stimulation, the concentration of oxytocin in the blood increases and peaks during ejaculation. In addition, the D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine (APO) activates oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. And induce penile erection, so it is believed that oxytocin is also involved in the process of human penis erection.
Oxytocin’s classic action is to contract smooth muscle, so it is unlikely that oxytocin in the peripheral circulation induces penile erection. It has been found that blood oxytocin increases during male sexual activity and peaks at orgasm and when the penis begins to soften, so oxytocin may be related to the muscle contractions of the reproductive tract and pelvic floor during orgasm. Oxytocin in blood increased by 5 times during ejaculation and penile weakness, and returned to normal levels in about 30 minutes, suggesting that oxytocin may mediate penile weakness after ejaculation and a long refractory period thereafter. In conclusion, central oxytocin is a powerful erectile factor, while peripheral oxytocin may be involved in penile weakness, especially in the refractory period after orgasm and ejaculation. Oxytocin is still controversial for ejaculation function and semen excretion, and further research is needed.
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Application of Oxytocin
As we all know, oxytocin is the drug of choice for the prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, especially postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine atony. “Where there is childbirth, there is oxytocin”, this is an indisputable fact. Almost all domestic and foreign guidelines list it as a first-line drug for postpartum hemorrhage. Oxytocin can be given intramuscularly or intravenously when it is used to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage. Prophylactic use of oxytocin before delivery of the placenta can reduce postpartum hemorrhage by 60%. For vaginal delivery, its dosage and administration methods are currently mostly standard 10U oxytocin uterine intramuscular injection or intravenous bolus injection.
For women undergoing elective cesarean section, WHO (2013) recommends a continuous intravenous infusion of oxytocin at 20 U/h, and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2012) recommends a slow intravenous bolus of 5 U. During cesarean section, lower doses of oxytocin (<5U/h) can maintain sufficient uterine contractility and significantly reduce hemodynamic changes. The protocol follows the “rules of threes” (3U oxytocin is injected slowly by intravenous bolus, and the interval is 3 minutes for evaluation. According to the evaluation results, it is decided whether to repeat the above process. It can be repeated 3 times in total, and finally the intravenous drip of 3U/h is carried out. maintenance, and prepare 3 alternative drugs to replace when oxytocin treatment is not effective). In high-risk women undergoing cesarean delivery, carbetocin (a long-acting oxytocin) can significantly reduce postpartum hemorrhage compared to oxytocin.
Preparation of Oxytocin
- Using AM Resin as the starting carrier, Rink Amide- AM Linker, to obtain Rink Amide-AM Resin, the substitution degree of this Rink Amide-AM Resin is sub=0.7~0.8 mmol/g.
- Adopt the solid-phase polypeptide stepwise condensation method, according to the peptide sequence from the C-terminus to the N-terminus, firstly, Fmoc-Gly-Rink Amide-AM Resin is obtained by coupling reaction of Fmoc-Gly-OH and Step 1 Rink Amide-AM Resin.
- Remove the protecting group Fmoc of Fmoc-Gly-Rink Amide-AM Resin in step 2, thereby obtaining H-Gly-Rink Amide-AM Resin.
- Use the solid-phase polypeptide stepwise condensation method to gradually complete H-Gly-Rink Amide-AM Resin and Fmoc-Leu-OH, Fmoc-Pro-OH, Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-OH, Fmoc-Asn(Trt) Coupling of -OH, Fmoc-Gln(Trt)-OH, Fmoc-Ile-OH, Fmoc-Tyr(Me)-OH, methanol contraction to synthesize the precursor peptide Fmoc-Tyr(me)–Ile- Gln(Trt)-Asn(Trt)-Cys(Trt)-Pro-Leu-Gly-RinkAmide-AM Resin.
- DBLK (20% piperidine/DMF mixed solution) removes the protective group Fmoc in the precursor peptide of oxytocin acetate to obtain H-Tyr(me)–Ile-Gln(Trt)-Asn(Trt)-Cys(Trt )-Pro-Leu-Gly-Rink Amide-AM Resin The ninhydrin test was positive. Weigh 3 times the molar amount of tetrachlorobutyric acid/HOBT and add the deprotected precursor peptide H-Tyr(me) –Ile-Gln(Trt)-Asn(Trt)-Cys(Trt)-Pro-Leu-Gly-RinkAmide-AM Resin was added with appropriate DMF to make it stir and react for 1~2h. The ninhydrin test was negative. Remove the reaction solution and add appropriate methanol to make it evenly stirred, remove the methanol and vacuum dry the resin until the oxytocin acetate linear peptide resin is synthesized.
- The cleavage agent is mixed with the oxytocin acetate linear peptide resin obtained in step 5 to undergo a cleavage reaction, thereby removing Rink Amide-AM Resin and oxytocin acetate side chain protecting groups, and then successively by sedimentation, centrifugation, washing and drying to obtain acetic acid Oxytocin linear crude peptide.
- Grind the dried oxytocin acetate linear crude peptide obtained in step 5 to a powder, and dissolve the oxytocin acetate crude peptide with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to a concentration of 1mmol/20ml, thereby obtaining the oxytocin acetate linear peptide Crude peptide solution.
- Add 30% dilute ammonia saturated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) dropwise to the oxytocin acetate linear crude peptide solution to adjust the pH of the oxytocin acetate linear crude peptide solution to 9~10, and adjust the temperature to 50~60 degrees Celsius , when the pH is adjusted to 9~10 and the temperature is adjusted to 50~60 degrees Celsius, immediately add 0.2g/mmol of tris-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) to the cyclization solution, and the cyclization time 1~2h.
- The crude oxytocin acetate that has been cyclized for 1-2 hours in step 8 is separated and purified by a C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography column, and oxytocin acetate is obtained after rotary evaporation and freeze-drying.
- Oxytocin – PubChem
- Su Qifeng.. The application of oxytocin in labor induction and labor induction. Journal of Practical Obstetrics and Gynecology (5), 8-9.
Oxytocin Supplier and Manufacturer
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