What is Natamycin in Food?
Pimaricin (additionally referred to as natamycin, INN) is a normally happening antifungal representative, which is generated by fermentation of Streptomyces natalensis. It is a macrolide polyene antifungal representative used to deal with fungal keratitis, which is an eye infection. In medicine, it can be utilized to treat different fungal infections caused by candida fungus, aspergillus, cephalosporin, fusarium and also penicillium. In the food sector, it can be made use of as an all-natural preservative to avoid the development of fungi. Its system of action is to inhibit the process of ergosterol reliant vacuole fusion as well as membrane fusion by combining with ergosterol in the fungal plasma membrane, as well as additional inhibit the growth of fungis.
Table of Natamycin
What is Natamycin?
Natamycin, likewise referred to as pimaricin, was first separated from Streptomyces natalis in 1955, and its task is much above that of sorbic acid. In June 1982, the U.S. FDA formally authorized natamycin as a food chemical. Natamycin is an all-natural, broad-spectrum, high-efficiency polyene macrolide antifungal agent, which has actually been used in clinical therapy (outside application to treat keratitis brought on by fungi, etc), food, feed, and grain storage, particularly in the application of food basic material preservation and completed product antisepsis, showing an excellent possibility.
Natamycin relies upon its lactone ring structure to engage with sterol substances on the fungal cell membrane to create antibiotic-sterol compounds, thus ruining the framework of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane layer. The hydrophilic part (polyol part) of the macrolide forms water holes on the membrane layer, which harms the permeability of the cell membrane layer, which consequently creates the leakage of amino acids, electrolytes and various other substances in the microorganisms, and the bacteria die. When there is no sterol substance on the cell membrane layer of specific microbes, natamycin has no result on it, so natamycin only prevents fungis, and also has no antibacterial task versus microorganisms and also infections.
Natamycin in Food
GB 2760-2014 “Guidelines for using Food Additives in National Food Safety and security Criteria” specifies that natamycin can be utilized in cheese as well as refined cheese as well as its analogues, breads, sauced meat products, smoked barbecue meat, deep-fried meat, Western-style pork, meat enema, fermented meat items, mayonnaise and salad clothing, vegetables and fruit juice (pulp) and fermented white wine 11 sorts of food.
Natamycin ought to not be utilized in various other foods apart from the above food categories. It ought to be kept in mind that in the food category of GB 2760-2014, pastry and also bread are 2 types of products. That is to say, natamycin can not be utilized as a chemical on bread. As well as if natamycin is added throughout the bread making procedure, it will prevent the fermentation of the yeast and create the bread not to rise.
Since food is abundant in nutrients, it is exceptionally at risk to contamination by some germs as well as fungis, as well as some fungi can additionally create toxic substances, such as penicillic acid as well as aflatoxin, which are exceptionally unsafe to human health. As a food preservative, natamycin can effectively prevent the development and reproduction of mold and mildew and filamentous fungis, and after that manage some damaging toxic substances from infecting food. Nevertheless, natamycin has no inhibitory impact on some probiotics such as salt lactate microorganisms, so it will certainly not Affect the processing and also production and taste features of fermented food.
Natamycin in Cheese
The European Union has approved it to be used in the field of cheese and meat products, and the Netherlands has also approved natamycin for the preservation of apples and pears. US FDA approves natamycin as a food preservative and allows natamycin to be used on cheese. Countries in the Middle East allow natamycin to be used as a preservative in all foods. Brazil, Argentina and other Latin American countries allow natamycin to be used in cheese and meat products.
Since 1997, the Ministry of Health of my country has officially approved natamycin as a food preservative, and has been approved for use in cheese, sauced meat products, smoked and barbecued meat, fried meat, Western-style ham, meat enemas, and fermented meat products Surfaces of vegetables, pastries, juice purees, and mold-prone food processing vessels, and added to fermented wine, mayonnaise, and salad dressings.
The US FDA has approved the addition of 11ppm natamycin to feed to improve feed mildew. In 2000, Wyatt et al studied the application of natamycin in feed. They inserted 191 strains of Aspergillus that may be contaminated in feed into gradient plates containing natamycin, and found that the minimum lethal dose (MIC) of various Aspergillus was below 0.4g/L.
Natamycin in Food Side Effects
Natamycin has no acute toxicity. In animal studies, the lowest LD50 found was 2.5-4.5 g/kg. In rats, LD50 ≥ 2300 mg/kg, and the dose of 500 mg/kg/day within 2 years in survival rate, growth, or tumor occurrence. The metabolite of eumycin is also nontoxic. LD50 of decomposition products of eudomycin under various storage conditions may be lower than that of eudomycin, but in all cases, the number is quite high. In humans, repeated doses of 500 mg/kg/day for several consecutive days can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
There is no evidence to show that either at the pharmacological level or as a food additive level, eudomycin will damage the normal intestinal flora, but it may not be able to conduct a clear study. However, some people are allergic to eudomycin.
EFSA concluded that there is no risk associated with drug resistant fungi when using Eustatin as a food additive.