Molecular geometry: Fullerene C60 and diamond, graphite is three allotropes of carbon, fullerene molecule is a stable molecule formed by the combination of 60 carbon atoms, it has 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are It is a regular pentagon and 20 are regular hexagons. It is shaped like a football, so it is also called fullerene. Fullerene was proposed in 1985 by Kroto.HW and Smalley.RE of Rice University in Houston, USA. They used high-power laser beams to bombard graphite and gasify it with 1 MPa. The pressure of the helium generates ultrasonic waves, so that the carbon atoms vaporized by the laser beam enters the vacuum expansion through a small nozzle and rapidly cools, thereby obtaining the composition and structure of C60, C60, which has been proved by mass spectrometry and X-ray analysis. In addition, many C60-like molecules such as C70 have also been discovered.
In 1991, scientists discovered that C60 is superconducting with a small amount of certain metals (such as potassium, strontium, barium, etc.), and the fabrication process of this material is simpler than making traditional superconducting materials – ceramics. The texture is very hard, so people predict that the use of C60 in superconductivity may exceed ceramic materials. At present, people’s understanding of the structure and reaction of C60 molecules is deepening, and its application in materials science and superconductors is underway. Carbon microtubes derived from fullerenes are 1 million times stronger than metals of the same diameter. Football in the real world has poured countless people with its endless charm, and the little “fullerenes” have influenced and changed the world in another form.
The structural characteristics of fullerene C60 determine its special physicochemical properties, which can be used in a wide range of disciplines. For example, an alkali metal atom can form an “ionic” compound with a C60 bond to exhibit very good superconducting properties, and a transition metal fullerene C60 compound exhibits good redox properties. At high pressure, C60 can be converted to diamond, opening up a new source of diamond. The water-soluble host-guest complex formed by C60 with cyclodextrin and cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons will play an important role in the field of supramolecular chemistry and biomimetic chemistry. A catalyst based on fullerene C60 can be used for materials that have not been previously synthesized or to more efficiently synthesize existing materials. The ability of carbon to be easily processed into fine fibers is likely to develop a high-temperature superconducting material that is superior to existing ceramic superconductors. The discovery and research of tubular fullerenes is likely to make this ultra-strength, low-density material for the fuselage of new aircraft. The property of fullerene to absorb gas in a differentiated manner may be applied to remove impurity gases in natural gas. C60 ion beam bombardment of heavy hydrogen targets is expected to be applied to molecular beam induced nuclear fusion techniques. The C60 and C70 solutions have optical limiting properties and can be used as light threshold devices and glare protectors in digital processors. Doping PVK with a mixture of C60 and C70 exhibits very good photoconductivity and its potential for xerographic printing. possibility. Si has also been found to form a fullerene-like structure and is expected to become a new semiconductor component material. So far, fullerene clusters and their derivatives have been involved in many fields such as life chemistry, organic chemistry, material chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer science, catalytic chemistry, etc., and can be used in composite materials, building materials, surface coatings, rocket materials. and many more. Although its widespread application is not a short-term process, as people continue to recognize it, it is believed that various applications based on C60 will have broader application prospects.