Alkyl Ketene Dimer CAS 144245-85-2 AKD
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Alkyl Ketene Dimer: The Complete Guide
Alkyl Ketene Dimer for Sale
|Chemical Name:||Alkyl Ketene Dimer|
|Other Name:||Alkylketene diMer; Ketene dimers; AKD WAX 1840|
|Type:||Catalyst and Auxiliary|
What is Alkyl Ketene Dimer?
Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is a kind of organic compound based on oxetan-2-one 4-membered ring system, which is also the central structural element of propanolactone and diethylene ketone. On the oxocyclobutane ring of the alkyl vinyl ketone dimer related to the technology, there is a C12 – C16 alkyl group at position 3 and a C13 – C17 alkylene group at position 4.
Alkyl ketone dimer is mainly used for sizing paper and paperboard, as well as hydrophobic cellulose fiber. Such modified products are characterized by higher mechanical strength and less water, ink or printing ink penetration.
AKD has slave β- Hydrophobic alkyl group with extended lactide ring. A specific example comes from the ethylene ketone dimerization of stearic acid. This vinyl ketone is produced by the pyrolysis of stearyl chloride. AKD reacts with hydroxyl groups on cellulose through esterification. Esterification competes with AKD hydrolysis. Before the development of AKD, hydrophobicity was given by adding rosin to paper.
Related to AKD is alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA). For AKD, ASA reacts with the hydroxyl group of cellulose to form an ester, which fixes the hydrophobic group on the surface. ASA is prepared from unsaturated hydrocarbon and maleic anhydride via olefin reaction
Alkyl Ketene Dimer Uses
Alkyl ketone dimer (AKD) was industrialized in 1956, when it was just used for unique paper calling for re sizing. Recently, society paper has actually primarily transformed to AKD neutral sizing, making it much more commonly utilized.
This product is an alkyl ketene dimer made from greater fatty acids (C ≥ 12) through acylation as well as dehydrochlorination. As the raw powder of AKD and neutral sizing representative, this item is made use of to make emulsion of neutral sizing representative for pulp.
- AKD wax: at present, the manufacturing of AKD wax can be non-toxic, waste water complimentary, odor cost-free and pollution-free. It was produced by solvent totally free technique and also acquired national patent. Liquid AKD wax can fix the problem of paper sliding. Continual production of AKD wax has boosted the automation as well as manufacturing efficiency of this technique.
- AKD lotion: In recent years, the production of fast maturing AKD lotion used for in machine coating light coated paper, AKD lotion with strong anti-interference performance for box board paper, and surface sizing AKD with good lotion stability has been greatly improved.
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Application of Alkyl Ketene Dimer
The issue of acid (aluminum sulfate mediated) sizing of alkaline digested material introduced at the start of the 19th century resulted in the search for alternate materials for sizing in neutral or alkaline settings along with making use of alkaline flocculants (such as chalk or calcium carbonate as alkali gets). In addition to alkenyl succinic anhydride, which is undoubtedly more responsive (it can likewise be quickly hydrolyzed in the existence of water), alkylated plastic ketone dimer has ended up being the recommended surface area as well as high quality sizing representative in the paper market given that the 1960s and also 1950s.
AKD used in industry comes from fats with chain size between C14 (myristic acid) as well as C22 (caprylic acid); Ideally, palmitic (C16) diketene and stearic (C18) ketene and also their mixtures, as well as fat blends from the hydrolysis of animal as well as vegetable fats, are utilized. Due to the chain length of the initial fat, AKD is a waxy solid with a melting point in between 42 and also 70 ° C. The blend of alkylated ketene dimer as well as water is a diffusion at a temperature less than 40 ° C and a lotion at a temperature level more than 45 ° C. Fluid AKDs are not commonly utilized. They are based upon unsaturated fats, such as oleic acid or branched chain fatty acids, such as isostearic acid.
Liquid alkyl diketene dispersions usually have 10-20 wt% of AKD, As well as active safety colloid (particularly polycation, such as the copolymer of cationic starch, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and also quaternized N-vinyl imidazole, acylated polyethyleneimine or cationic high molecular weight polyacrylamide, with an average molar number and mass up to 7 million grams/mole) as well as various other stabilizers (generally anionic surfactants, such as lignin sulfonate or the condensate of salt naphthalenesulfonate as well as formaldehyde). This steady AKD diffusion remains energetic and also secure at area temperature level for up to three months, and also is additionally resistant from 5 to 25%. The quantity of alkyl vinyl ketone dimer utilized for sizing paper and also paper items is preferably in the range of 0.15 to 0.8 weight%, sometimes 0.05 to 0.2 weight%, based upon dry paper basic materials.
Preparation of Alkyl Ketene Dimer
In 1945, the commercial synthesis of alkylated ketene dimer (still called ketone ethyl ketone back then) from long-chain acyl chloride in inert solvent (such as ether or benzene) with triethylamine as tertiary amine under anhydrous problems was patented. After filtering insoluble triethylamine hydrochloride and evaporating the solvent, long-chain alkyl chain dimer was acquired with a return of greater than 90%.
Utilizing other solvents, such as carboxylic acid esters or ketones, it is less complicated to separate trialkylamine hydrochloride or various other amines, such as N, N, N ‘, N’ – tetramethyl-hexane-1,6-diamine does not give any type of considerable advantages.
A method without solvent is also described in which the obtained amine hydrochloride is filtered out or extracted with dilute acid aqueous solution.
A continuous process in which long-chain acyl chloride and tertiary amine (such as dimethylisopropylamine, dimethylcyclohexylamine or triethylamine) are supplied to a tubular reactor, a kneader or, preferably, a twin-screw extruder or a planetary roller extruder, respectively, without solvent, and provide more than 90% lactone content in a short reaction time at 90 and 110 ° C. Treatment by phase separation or acid extraction.
Alkyl Ketene Dimer Suppliers and Manufacturers
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